Saltwater aquarium maintenance

aquarium-vacuum

Saltwater aquarium maintenance

List of recommended Saltwater fish for beginners.

Setting up a saltwater tank step by step guide.

The importance of live rock and live sand in maintaining a healthy saltwater aquarium.

Daily tasks in saltwater aquarium maintenance

Once your saltwater aquarium has become properly established with all the fish, corals and invertebrates that you want and the liverock has developed a healthy colony of de-nitrifying bacteria and other micro-organisms then your job should start to get easier. This process may take a few months.

Your daily routines now should include checking the temperature and checking the evaporation level against a pre-marked line against the water surface. Also check to see if all your fish and invertebrates are present. This can be done while feeding, when all the fish will come to eat. But don’t just check to see if they are present but also check to see if they are behaving normally and do not show any signs of injury or illness.

If any of the fish or invertebrates has died then remove it immediately. A dead corpse will quickly rot in the water and start to pollute the water and will eventually cause illness to other fish and invertebrates. After you have removed the corpse then your next job is to investigate the cause.

First check your water parameters, especially ammonia, nitrite and nitrate levels. Any unusual readings spells trouble and will require an immediate water change. Syphon off 25% of the water in the aquarium. Syphon in or near the sand where there might be some decaying organic matter. Then replace with clean saltwater to top up your aquarium. Try to maintain pre-mixed saltwater that has been allowed to settle that can be used immediately. If there are no unusual readings then check all the fish for any symptoms of illness. Look for laboured breathing, split or frayed fins, white/grey/brown spots, any slime or fluffy grey/white patches, any red sores. If you see any of these signs or anything similar then your fish have an illness and you will have to diagnose the illness using a checklist.

Once you have determined the illness of your fish then you can obtain the medication or treatment and start medicating your whole aquarium. But be careful in the choice of medications because some corals and invertebrates are susceptible to them. And be careful not to overdose with medication as invertebrates may survive normal doses but high doses may kill them.

However, if you cannot determine the cause of your lone fish death then it may remain a mystery. The cause may be a hidden illness of the dead fish, perhaps an attack from another fish or invertebrate or perhaps from an overcrowded aquarium. When a fish dies from an overcrowded aquarium then the death actually gives breathing space to the rest of the fish.

Invertebrates usually rely on scraps of food that are left over remains of uneaten fish food. If the fish do not leave enough scraps for them they can go hungry. Make sure you feed the invertebrates directly. remove any uneaten food after 15 minutes.

Weekly tasks for saltwater aquarium maintenance

Weekly tasks include checking ph is between 8.1-8.3. If it falls below 8.1 then you may have decaying organic matter in the tank. This causes a drop in ph. If there is a ph drop then check your ammonia and nitrite levels as well. Then syphon around the sand, looking for any decaying bits of food. Open up the filter and remove excess mulm by rinsing in a bucket full of aquarium water.

Another weekly task is to check the salinity level. First off, check the water against the original line you marked on the side of your aquarium when you first filled it. If the water level has fallen then you will have to top up with fresh saltwater (preferably reverse osmosis water) Make sure the water is the same temperature. Check your phosphate levels and calcium levels as well.

After this check the salinity with a hygrometer. Your reading should be 1.025. If the reading is less than this then you will need to do adjust the salinity slowly over many days. Everyday change 5% of the water with a freshly mad batch of seawater with a reading of 1.026. Repeat daily until the aquarium gets back to 1.025. Likewise if the reading was higher than 1.025 then you will need to change 5% water daily and replace with a mix of 1.024. Again repeat until you get the 1.025 reading again. If the reading was correct at 1.025 you should still do a 15% water change with water at 1.025.

Check the output flow from your filters. If the flow feels less than normal then you will have to take apart the filter. Place the filter material in a bucket of aquarium saltwater and rinse out any excess mulm before putting back the filter material into the filter and putting back the filter. Do not use tapwater or cold water to rinse the filter material because you might kill of healthy bacteria in the filter which you must preserve at all costs.

Scrape off any algae that has grown along the front glass. Do not remove any algae off other parts of the aquarium because algae is a natural biological filter that removes nitrates from the water.

Clean out the protein skimmer cup. If there is a lot of waste skimmed out then you might need to do this more often. You also may be feeding your fish too much. So consider reducing your feeding a little.

Lastly do a thorough inspection of all your corals. Check for any infections or lack of growth or bleaching of the corals. If there is excess growth then you need to trim them back. If the corals have become ill then you might be able to frag off a healthy piece to save your coral because ilness usually spreads to the whole coral. Fragging may be the only way to save it. Sick corals are best left undisturbed. The best way to treat them is by fixing water parameters. Usually high phosphates, high nitrates and change of lighting or water flow can be the cause. Sometimes invertebrates or fish may take chunks out of them.

Finally, if you don’t see any of the listed problems then well done! You are doing a good job and everything is running smoothly.

 

Setting up a tropical aquarium: step by step guide

fish tank set up

Setting up a tropical aquarium professionally

This is an easy to follow step by step guide on setting up an aquarium for the beginner aquarist. Following these steps closely will allow you to have a successful aquarium set up at home, even if you don’t have any experience in keeping fish. You will avoid the most common disasters such as dead fish, dying plants and green water.

1. Buy the biggest aquarium with a fitted hood that you can afford. Buy a 15″ high aquarium for larger fish or a 12″ high aquarium for smaller fish
2.Buy a heater-thermostat. Buy a larger wattage than recommended so that the heater doesn’t have to struggle to maintain the temperature
3. Buy a large sponge based internal power filter. Again get one with a higher turnover than recommended
4. Buy a stand or cabinet that will allow easy access to the top of the aquarium
5. Find a location away from direct sunlight near power sockets where the floor will support the weight of the aquarium
6.Use a spirit level to ensure the aquarium is sitting perfectly level
7. Place a sheet of polystyrene between the aquarium and stand or surface the aquarium is to sit on. This will help to spread out any pressure points which may crack the glass
8.Buy a hand pump action aquarium vacuum to assist in the maintenance of the aquarium

9.Buy some aquarium gravel
10. thoroughly wash the gravel until no dirt comes off in the water
11. Line the aquarium with the gravel. Slope the gravel. Higher at the back of the aquarium and lower at the front
12. Buy a flourescent tube with a peak in the red, blue and yellow areas of the spectrum. This will benefit the plants who will absorb the light
13.Buy a test kit that will test for ph, hardness, ammonia and nitrites
14.Fill your aquarium with water and treat the water with an anti chlorine chemical that will remove the chlorine. Or leave the water for standing for seven days so that the chlorine and ammonia will evaporate. Use a plastic sheet on the gravel when pouring in the water to avoid disturbing the gravel.
15. Set up a large barrel in the back yard or garden and fill it with tap water
16. Turn on your heater
17. Check your ph and hardness of your water.
18. Use the ph and hardness figures to guide you in selecting your plants and fish. If you have hard and alkaline water then it is much better to buy fish that thrive in such water such as Malawi fish.
19.Buy some plants and insert them into the gravel or in clay pots if needed.
20. Turn on the filter.
21. Add 2 hardy fish (such as zebra danios or mollies) after 7 days. Don’t feed for two days then feed sparsely to not pollute the aquarium. Any uneaten food must be removed within 5 minutes.
22. Do daily tests of the ammonia and nitrate. Do a water change with water from the water barrel when the ammonia starts to rise. Top up the water barrel as necessary.
23. After another 7 days buy a few more fish. Do half stock at this point. Keep feeding sparsely and clean up all uneaten food. For every litre of water allow 1cm of fish. 150litre tank = 150cm of fish. At this point 75cm total length of all your fish for a 150litre tank for example. But allow for growth. Calculate using the adult size of the individual fish.
24. Keep doing the water tests and do daily water changes of 10-25%.
25. After another 7 days buy some more fish. Stock at 75% at this point which for a 150litre tank is 112cm total length of all fish. keep feeding sparsely. Again calculate using the adult size of the fish.
26. Keep doing the water tests and daily water changes
27. After a month you can fully stock your aquarium but you will still need to test the water and do water changes. This is 150cm of fish for a 150 litre aquarium. 50cm for 50 litre. 100cm for 100 litre aquarium, etc. Again calculate using the adult size of the fish. Start feeding normally but keep a close eye on the ammonia and nitrite levels.
28. As the ammonia and nitrite levels stabilise to 0ppm, which may take up to 6 weeks, then you can cut back on the water changes to once a week or longer.
29. Check your plant growth. Some plants may be thriving while others may be struggling. Remove the struggling plants and buy some more suited to your aquarium.
30.Check for algae growths. If algae has taken hold then reduce the duration of lighting during the day and or cover one side or the back of the aquarium to reduce the light.
31. Siphon through the gravel by churning the mouth of the vacuum into the gravel. The gravel will not be sucked up but accumulated fish waste will be removed.
32. Use tablet fertilisers pushed near the roots of any plants that need it.
33. Swap or sell any fish that don’t settle in. Either they are bullying the other fish, being bullied, they are constantly hiding or have fallen ill.

So, set up your aquarium in a planned way so that the plants get acclimatized.
Beginners plants

Also a tank’s bacteria must mature to recycle fish waste so that the fish don’t die. Also make sure you buy fish will that get on with each other.

compatible fish lists here

Never have a newly bought fish die again and have that fish living for a long time.

Cycling your aquarium – explains the process in detail

Let aquarium set up mistakes be a thing of the past.