Saltwater aquarium maintenance


Saltwater aquarium maintenance

List of recommended Saltwater fish for beginners.

Setting up a saltwater tank step by step guide.

The importance of live rock and live sand in maintaining a healthy saltwater aquarium.

Daily tasks in saltwater aquarium maintenance

Once your saltwater aquarium has become properly established with all the fish, corals and invertebrates that you want and the liverock has developed a healthy colony of de-nitrifying bacteria and other micro-organisms then your job should start to get easier. This process may take a few months.

Your daily routines now should include checking the temperature and checking the evaporation level against a pre-marked line against the water surface. Also check to see if all your fish and invertebrates are present. This can be done while feeding, when all the fish will come to eat. But don’t just check to see if they are present but also check to see if they are behaving normally and do not show any signs of injury or illness.

If any of the fish or invertebrates has died then remove it immediately. A dead corpse will quickly rot in the water and start to pollute the water and will eventually cause illness to other fish and invertebrates. After you have removed the corpse then your next job is to investigate the cause.

First check your water parameters, especially ammonia, nitrite and nitrate levels. Any unusual readings spells trouble and will require an immediate water change. Syphon off 25% of the water in the aquarium. Syphon in or near the sand where there might be some decaying organic matter. Then replace with clean saltwater to top up your aquarium. Try to maintain pre-mixed saltwater that has been allowed to settle that can be used immediately. If there are no unusual readings then check all the fish for any symptoms of illness. Look for laboured breathing, split or frayed fins, white/grey/brown spots, any slime or fluffy grey/white patches, any red sores. If you see any of these signs or anything similar then your fish have an illness and you will have to diagnose the illness using a checklist.

Once you have determined the illness of your fish then you can obtain the medication or treatment and start medicating your whole aquarium. But be careful in the choice of medications because some corals and invertebrates are susceptible to them. And be careful not to overdose with medication as invertebrates may survive normal doses but high doses may kill them.

However, if you cannot determine the cause of your lone fish death then it may remain a mystery. The cause may be a hidden illness of the dead fish, perhaps an attack from another fish or invertebrate or perhaps from an overcrowded aquarium. When a fish dies from an overcrowded aquarium then the death actually gives breathing space to the rest of the fish.

Invertebrates usually rely on scraps of food that are left over remains of uneaten fish food. If the fish do not leave enough scraps for them they can go hungry. Make sure you feed the invertebrates directly. remove any uneaten food after 15 minutes.

Weekly tasks for saltwater aquarium maintenance

Weekly tasks include checking ph is between 8.1-8.3. If it falls below 8.1 then you may have decaying organic matter in the tank. This causes a drop in ph. If there is a ph drop then check your ammonia and nitrite levels as well. Then syphon around the sand, looking for any decaying bits of food. Open up the filter and remove excess mulm by rinsing in a bucket full of aquarium water.

Another weekly task is to check the salinity level. First off, check the water against the original line you marked on the side of your aquarium when you first filled it. If the water level has fallen then you will have to top up with fresh saltwater (preferably reverse osmosis water) Make sure the water is the same temperature. Check your phosphate levels and calcium levels as well.

After this check the salinity with a hygrometer. Your reading should be 1.025. If the reading is less than this then you will need to do adjust the salinity slowly over many days. Everyday change 5% of the water with a freshly mad batch of seawater with a reading of 1.026. Repeat daily until the aquarium gets back to 1.025. Likewise if the reading was higher than 1.025 then you will need to change 5% water daily and replace with a mix of 1.024. Again repeat until you get the 1.025 reading again. If the reading was correct at 1.025 you should still do a 15% water change with water at 1.025.

Check the output flow from your filters. If the flow feels less than normal then you will have to take apart the filter. Place the filter material in a bucket of aquarium saltwater and rinse out any excess mulm before putting back the filter material into the filter and putting back the filter. Do not use tapwater or cold water to rinse the filter material because you might kill of healthy bacteria in the filter which you must preserve at all costs.

Scrape off any algae that has grown along the front glass. Do not remove any algae off other parts of the aquarium because algae is a natural biological filter that removes nitrates from the water.

Clean out the protein skimmer cup. If there is a lot of waste skimmed out then you might need to do this more often. You also may be feeding your fish too much. So consider reducing your feeding a little.

Lastly do a thorough inspection of all your corals. Check for any infections or lack of growth or bleaching of the corals. If there is excess growth then you need to trim them back. If the corals have become ill then you might be able to frag off a healthy piece to save your coral because ilness usually spreads to the whole coral. Fragging may be the only way to save it. Sick corals are best left undisturbed. The best way to treat them is by fixing water parameters. Usually high phosphates, high nitrates and change of lighting or water flow can be the cause. Sometimes invertebrates or fish may take chunks out of them.

Finally, if you don’t see any of the listed problems then well done! You are doing a good job and everything is running smoothly.


The nano marine aquarium

The fascination of the nano marine aquarium

Larger aquariums are better than nano marine aquariums if you have the money

If you are a newbie marine aquarist, then you may be tempted by the lower cost of buying a smaller aquarium. Or you don’t want to commit to a larger aquarium until you know you can look after aquarium fish. So you might buy a smaller tank as a trial. This can be a mistake. If your dealer is persuading you to buy a larger tank then listen to him, if you can.

A small aquarium, especially a marine aquarium, is more difficult to cope with because of sudden water quality problems. In a bigger aquarium these problems are diluted by the larger quantity of water. Any rise or fall in salinity, pollution or other water parameter will be much slower in a large aquarium than a small aquarium. It is a falsity to believe a small aquarium is easier to maintain than a bigger aquarium. The opposite is true.

A freshwater nano aquarium is certainly much easier

List of beginners recommended saltwater fish

Comparison of large aquariums with nano marine aquariums

You will still need to buy all the same equipment for a nano aquarium as a large reef aquarium. For example hygrometer and water test kits. Some of the equipment is just miniaturised versions of the ones available for large aquariums, but the price is not miniaturised being about the same price. Savings in costs are usually made in the price of the aquarium, stand or cabinet, price of lighting, costs of live rock, cost of live stock because you will only be able to keep a small number of fish and invertebrates. Smaller heaters are a little cheaper. But the rest of the equipment is about the same, including on going costs.

Your first foray into keeping a marine aquarium will have a greater chance of success if your choice of tank size is at least 160 litres. With a tank of less than 160 litres, monitoring and maintenance work doubles. You will have to buy a good quality test kit that is easy to use and you will have to keep using it daily or even twice a day. The water has to be checked daily for salinity levels, ammonia, nitrites and nitrates. Adjustments and interventions will almost certainly have to be made more often. Things change so fast in such a small aquarium that salinity levels due to evaporation or pollution levels may change quickly and kill your fish or invertebrates in a day. In a larger aquarium these changes are slower and your fish have more time to adapt. And there is more opportunity for you to catch these dangers and correct them in time.

Beginners saltwater aquarium here

First Saltwater aquarium here

Stocking the nano marine aquarium

For many aquarists the prohibited costs of the larger aquariums leave them with no option but to start with a smaller aquarium. To be successful in a smaller aquarium your choice of fish and invertebrates must be made with more care. Corals from shallower waters are more tolerant of changes to water conditions than their deeper water counterparts. Also, your choice of fish is limited to the smaller and hardier species. Common clownfish, pyjama cardinalfish, dwarf angelfish and neon gobies make the best choices for the smaller aquarium and are great beginner fish anyway.

Once you have fish in a smaller marine aquarium then your options for invertebrates becomes limited both in the number and range of invertebrates you can successfully keep together with your fish. Shrimps and small hermit crabs are the hardiest invertebrates that might survive with fish present.

It is better to understock and overfilter for the first few months. It will take this long for your filters, live rock and live sand to fully mature. In this period you will get practice and experience of running your aquarium.

Maintenance of your nano marine aquarium

More careful attention to the diet and especially the feeding has to be made to make sure that the fish are well fed without allowing waste food to occur that will pollute the aquarium. If you good have experience in keeping fish then you will know what to do. For the less experienced, great attention has to be made to uneaten bits of food.

In a smaller aquarium it is better to have a protein skimmer and a uv filter. But don’t overdo it. The protein skimmer will remove essential nutrients while the UV filter may kill off helpful plankton. You must have live rock and live sand which will provide biological filtration. Once established this will greatly enhance your chance of succeeding.

You will have to buy the live rock. Cured live rock is better but more expensive than uncured live rock. Uncured live rock will cure in your aquarium. The effect of this is that pollutants from dying organisms will seep into your aquarium water for weeks until the rock cures. The live sand will develop by the migration of microscopic lifeforms and bacteria from the live rock into your sand. Also have a good external filter to perform additional biological filtration. Remove excess waste from the filter media by squeezing out once a week. Do not rinse out or you will lose the nitrifying bacteria.

Buying several small pieces of live rock and plenty of ocean rock is one way to create enough live rock in your aquarium but you will have to wait while the life from the live rock migrates to the ocean rock. This process takes time. if you have the patience then you can save money this way. Remember live rock will start to die when not submerged in sea water. Newly bought live rock from your dealer needs to be kept in seawater on the way back home. Make sure you buy solid live rock and ocean that is not prone to crumbling.

It is highly recommended to do many small partial water changes to the nano aquarium. Have a large container of pre-mixed saltwater. This will reduce the amount of times you have to mix water and sea salt to create seawater. The use of reverse osmosis water is highly recommended. Buy a RO water kit that will convert your tap water into pure water. Otherwise you will be spending a small fortune on continually buying RO water from your dealer.

Self contained nano marine aquariums

There are many self contained nano aquariums. These have advantages and disadvantages. Some are enclosed systems that reduce the water evaporation. The downside to this is that they tend to overheat, because of the enclosed lighting, especially in summer. The open top varieties are better in this regard but will require topping up with water daily to maintain the required salinity. Because of their all in one nature, these aquarium set ups work out cheaper. But invariably modifications will be necessary to these set ups to make them work.


Today, you have a better chance than ever before of having a successful nano aquarium because of
1. Advances in technology of filtration, monitoring and maintenance equipment
2. The wider availability of aquarium bred fish
3. Wide availability of good knowledge of the marine aquarium environment
4. The price of marine fish and live rock is falling because of the success of home produced sources
So, why not give it a try and start enjoying the colourful world of marine fish.











You can buy clownfish and dwarf angelfish online with home delivery in the US.

Featuring Angelfish










Breeding tropical marine fish

pair of clownfish breeding

How to start breeding tropical marine fish

pair of clownfish breeding
pair of clownfish breeding

If you have been successfully keeping saltwater fish in a marine tank for a while then perhaps you would like to move on to breeding your fish.
Many keepers of saltwater aquariums are content to just keep fish. For the brave few I will outline the basic steps that you need to be take in order to ensure a healthy brood. I will assume that you are familiar with the basics of marine aquarium care.

Feeding saltwater fish here

Saltwater aquarium maintenance here

Marine corals here

Equipment and food for breeding marine fish

Besides having a male and female fish, you will need to do some preparation for your fish if you would like to enjoy successful breeding:

• Breeding tank—You will want to setup a separate bare-bottom breeding tank that your fish larvae can comfortably live in until they become adults. It may help to have several tanks ready, depending on the size of the brood you plan on keeping. Large filtration is out of the question, but a simple air stone can help keep the water moving.

• Live food cultures—Fish fry will thrive if they given a continuous supply of live food. You will want to begin preparing your live food cultures before breeding starts so that you do not have to rush after your fish have bred. It is recommended to culture both rotifers and baby brine shrimp as the best two starter foods.

Many saltwater fish will begin their lives in a larval state, which often requires the set up of complex larval rearing systems in which multiple breeding tanks are connected to the main tank through a sump and constantly fed rotifers and live food cultures. If you are breeding your first tropical marine fish, it is advisable to choose fish that you can raise in a simple breeding tank without having to worry about the larval phase.

Selecting which marine fish to begin breeding

Since some marine fish require such a complex breeding set up, you, as a beginner, should focus on breeding easier species of saltwater fish that are simpler to breed. Avoid breeding fish that have a “pelagic larval phase”. The following list of fish have fry without a protracted larval phase.

male banggai cardinalfish brooding a mouthfull of young fish
male banggai cardinalfish brooding a mouthfull of young fish

• Banggai cardinals,
• Clownfish,
• Bristletail filefish,
• Green wolf eels,
• Neon gobies,
• Dottyback fish.

If you have a healthy pair of any of the above species in your tank, you can reasonably expect them to breed at some point. Most saltwater species will breed on their own when kept in excellent water conditions. However, certain species may take a long time to form a sexual pair.

If your fish are just not breeding despite keeping excellent water conditions with lots of hiding places then try moving your pair of fish into a low-light spawning tank. Orchid dottybacks, for instance, will breed readily when paired off in a small, covered tank with some decoration.

What to do when spawning begins

Generally, your job will begin when the eggs hatch. Up until then, one of the parent fish will usually defend their eggs, and will generally do a good job of it. Once the eggs hatch into larvae, however, you need to get them into a separate tank and get them fed.

Collecting your larvae from the main tank can seem like a difficult task, but one important tip can help: fish larvae tend to be attracted to light. To collect your larvae, follow these steps:

• Turn off the lights and water flow in your tank,
• Shine a small flashlight at the corner closest to the larvae,
• Let them accumulate in the light for a minute or two,
• Use a dip cup or siphon to collect them and deposit them in their own tank.

Raising the larvae of marine fish

Feeding the fry is the main stumbling block in reproducing marine fish. Many aquarists fail at this stage or lose all but a few of the fry. There is definitely money to be made for the aquarist who can successfully feed and raise a whole brood to a saleable size regularly.

Your fish larvae will need to be fed frequently and in large quantities. In the sea they would be surrounded by a rich variety of live plankton. Larval fish are voracious eaters and their appetite will surprise you. Moreover, their waste and waste of their live food will make frequent water changes necessary.

It is important to remember that your marine fish fry, being so small, will be unable to catch all of the food in the tank, and you will inevitably lose some food to waste and even some fish to starvation. These larvae need to have food within several millimetres of themselves in order to catch anything, which means saturating your tank with rotifers or plankton. Moreover these rotifers must be fed too. The rotifers must be fed with nutritious live algae. Ultimately this nutrition passes to the larvae via the rotifers. Algae can be raised with a light source and nutrient rich saltwater.

In fact, you may find that you are quickly running out of food to feed your fish, which leads to a very important rule: Never raise more fish than you can feed. You may have to cull some of the less fit members of the brood in order to realise this goal, but it will save the rest of them and ensure the health of the rest. A healthy minimum concentration would be 10-15 rotifers per millilitre of aquarium water in order to simulate the plankton they would find in the wild. A good system is to have and feed the rotifers in the same tank as the larvae. This, though, puts a heavier burden on the raising tanks oxygen demands and ammonia levels.

With frequent water changes, a well-oxygenated tank and lots of food, you should start seeing growth in your fish. The water changes will be very important since both your fish and your rotifers will cause ammonia levels to climb, and your filtration will be limited to fluidised sand filters, trickle filters and protein skimming – anything that uses greater flow will suck up the larvae.

Caring for your fish larvae

When breeding tropical marine fish, you will need to take care against bacterial infection. Siphoning out the waste properly twice a day should help reduce the risk of harmful bacterial colonies developing on decomposing organic waste. Your fish larvae have brand new immune systems that will not protect them from infection.

Protein skimming, again, can help greatly here by removing organic material and bacteria from the water column. A UV steriliser is also a very good idea for your breeding tank. If any of your larvae get sick, they need to be culled immediately to protect the rest of the brood.

aquarium bred two month old clownfish
aquarium bred two month old clownfish

Once your fish are large enough, you can begin feeding them baby brine shrimp as they gradually mature into juvenile fish and become ready to be weaned onto a diet of dried foods. While rotifers are ideal for the very beginning, eventually your fish will grow too large to be effectively fed by these tiny organisms.

One last important thing to consider: Since your larvae respond to light by moving towards it, any light source outside the glass of your aquarium will attract them. The result of this is that it will cause your larvae to bump their heads against the aquarium glass until they die. This behaviour also occurs if the larvae have run out of food. To prevent this you will need to cover your aquarium’s bottom and sides with a dark material.

If you have followed these instructions and researched the needs of your individual species, you will be well on your way to successfully breeding tropical marine fish for the first time!

Set up your first tropical marine tank

Final complete marine aquarium set up

Your first saltwater tank set up

well designed marine aquarium
well designed marine aquarium

If you have already enjoyed the success of keeping your own tropical freshwater aquarium and would like to move onto a more beautiful but complex aquaria, your next step may be to attempt your first tropical marine tank. A saltwater tank setup tends to require a bit more investment on your part, both financially and in terms of setting up the complete marine aquarium , but the fascinating end result is worth it.

While at first glance, it may seem that keeping a saltwater aquarium should be the same as keeping a freshwater one, but with added salt. However, there are some key differences that you will need to pay attention to in order to get your tank set up properly. One of the first that should be taken into account before you start buying any marine tank equipment is the type of set up you would like to keep.

See also beginners saltwater tank step by step
and live rock and live sand
and beginners saltwater fish

Three types of tropical saltwater tank setups

Fish only marine aquarium
Fish only marine aquarium is quite lively and active

Your first tropical marine tank will fall into one of three broad categories:

• Fish only tank

• Fish only with live rock (FOWLR) tank

• Complete reef tank (as above but with corals and invertebrates)

There are a wide variety of advantages and disadvantages to keeping each type of these saltwater tank setups. For your first tropical marine tank, however, it is important to keep things as simple as possible so that you can get acquainted with the specifics of keeping saltwater fish before moving on to more complicated setups involving corals and invertebrates.

Of the three choices above, the easiest option is the fish only with live rock tank. Intuitively you might think a fish only tank would be simpler to keep. Not so, the truth is that maintaining the correct water quality and filtration without live rock will require more work on your part. Live rock provides vital biological processes that eat up a lot of waste matter from the fish, purifying the water.

marine aquarium with live sand, coral and fish
marine aquarium with live sand, coral and fish

Reef tanks, too require a lot of hard work and monitoring in order to get running smoothly and maintaining, and are often some of the most expensive tanks to keep. They tend to require more equipment and more expensive livestock than tanks that focus solely on fish and live rock.

If you have decided to keep a fish and live rock tank and are ready to begin purchasing equipment and setting up, the list and guide below will help you get everything you need to begin.

What you need for your first tropical marine tank

As mentioned above, the technical requirements of maintaining your marine tank will be a bit more complex than those of a freshwater tank. You will need to collect the following equipment in order to get started:

• Aquarium As always, a larger tank is generally easier to keep and will make sudden changes in water quality less of a danger for your fish. At least 100 litres is recommended for your first tropical marine tank.

live rock is great for biological filtration
live rock is great for biological filtration

• Substrate There are three main options to choose from here: a shallow sand bed, a deep sand bed, or a bare bottom tank. A shallow sand bed is often ideal for first-time saltwater aquarists.

• Live Rock Getting about one 1 kilogram per 7.5 litres of high-quality live rock is important for your tank’s biological filtration.

• Saltwater Mix There are many brands of saltwater mix available both online and at your local aquarium shop.

• Refractometer This measures your water’s salt content, and is often included as part of high quality saltwater testing kits. Hydrometers also work, but tend to be less accurate.

• Protein Skimmer Your marine tank will need a protein skimmer. While it is possible to run a tank without one, you will have to work much more in order to avoid problems with algae and fish waste— you are better off starting with a skimmer that will take care of this for you.

• UV Steriliser This useful device uses high-frequency ultraviolet light to kill free-floating bacteria in your water. This makes it a type of filter, but one that uses light instead of mechanical or biological means to keep your water clean and healthy.

• Multiple Power Heads These devices provide water flow, which is very important in saltwater tanks. Turbulent flow, on the order of 10-20 times the tank volume, will help guarantee a clean, healthy tank by preventing detritus from accumulating.

• Reverse Osmosis Water Filter A water filter of this kind of necessary for preparing tap water. It removes minerals from tap water. So when you add sea salt to this water you will get pure sea water.

• Heater And Thermometer Some saltwater aquarists choose to purchase two smaller heaters instead of one large one, in order to avoid crisis should a heater malfunction.

• Test Kits Be sure to stock up on test kits for ammonia, nitrite, and nitrates. These will be very useful during the initial cycling of the tank.

• Lights Thankfully, FOWLR tanks do not have very strict lighting requirements like reef tanks do. A mix of white and blue actinic lights should be sufficient for most fish and live rock setups.

• Quarantine tank You may need to setup a small, bare quarantine tank for your fish, as saltwater organisms may have a hard time getting comfortable in captivity, and can easily get sick.

Choosing fish for your tropical marine tank

clown fish is a good marine beginner’s fish

While keeping your marine tank opens the possibility of keeping a wide variety of exotic fish and invertebrates, you will want to start with simple and inexpensive saltwater fish in the beginning. While the accidental loss of a fish is always a tragedy, that tragedy could be more pronounced if you just lost a rare exotic fish that cost more than £100!

The best fish to begin with are simple, hardy species that can help you get used to caring for the saltwater environment, such as:

• Clownfish (though these do prefer to live in coral)

• Blennies

• Damselfish

• Gobies

Putting your first tropical marine tank together

After you have gathered all of the equipment that you need, you can begin preparing your marine tank for activity. The first thing you will want to do is wash out your aquarium— be sure not to use any soap, as the residue will be harmful for your fish.

Painting your aquarium background black or deep blue makes fish colours stand out beautifully. However you might prefer a stick on background. When the tank is suitably prepared, you can begin adding pre-mixed saltwater to it.

Fill a standard 20 litre bucket with filtered water that is free from chlorine and chloramine, add the salt mixture slowly, referring to the instructions on the packet it came in. Stir well and refer to your refractometer frequently. Once you have a specific gravity reading of 1.021 and 1.024, you can add the water to your aquarium, repeating as necessary until the tank is filled.

Once the tank is full, you can activate your equipment and let the tank begin the cycling process. After a day or two of water circulation, you can add your live rock to the tank.

Curing live rock

Fish swimming amongst live rock
Fish swimming amongst live rock

The greatest expense of your marine tank will probably be live rock. High quality specimens can get costly, but offer excellent biological filtration. Before you can enjoy these benefits, however, you will need to cure the live rock for some time; between a week or two months depending on the condition of the rock.

To cure live rock, drain some of the aquarium water and place the live rock inside the tank, preferably in the centre and with your power heads pointed directly at it. Every few days, you will need to turn off the power to the tank and clean the live rock with an old toothbrush to remove debris and dead organisms. After each cleaning, siphon the debris and refill the tank with pre-mixed saltwater.

This process needs to be repeated every few days until the water has no ammonia readings, no nitrite readings, and a smell somewhat like the ocean. When the tank is cycled, you are ready to add sand.

Adding sand to your tank

The best way to properly add your sand substrate to the tank is by draining some of the saltwater into a 20 litre bucket and emptying your sand into the bucket. Stir the resulting mixture until you see dust and dirt rising. Siphon off this dust and dirt before it settles. Repeat this process until there is not dust and dirt.

Once the sand is cleaned, you can ladle it into your aquarium. If any sand gets caught on your live rock, use a power head to blow it off so that your rock maintains uninterrupted contact with the water. In a few days, if all goes well, you should be ready to starting adding fish to your tank.

Finishing your first tropical marine tank

Final complete marine aquarium set up
Complete saltwater tank setup

After letting your tank circulate for a few days, you should begin to see consistent water quality readings such as:

• A temperature of 24-27°C;
• Specific gravity between 1.020 and 1.024;
• pH between 8.0 and 8.4;
• Ammonia and nitrite readings of 0;
• Nitrite readings of less than 20 ppm;
• Carbonate hardness between 7-10 dKH.

Once this happens, you are ready to begin adding fish to your tank. It is highly recommended to use some of your water to make a small quarantine tank for them to get used to first, reducing the risk of disease.

Add your fish slowly, one at a time so that the tank can adjust to the increased biological load. Your fish will be stressed out at first, but should begin acting normally and feeling comfortable after a few days. At that point, you can test the water and, conditions permitting, add your next fish. In a short time, you will have a fully stocked saltwater aquarium. Now you can sit back and enjoy your small piece of the ocean. But remember you still need to keep monitoring your water quality and topping up your aquarium with newly made seawater regularly.