Clownfish

Percula clownfish

Getting to Know the Clownfish

Percula clownfish

A lot of you might already be familiar with the clownfish, especially because of Disney’s Finding Nemo cartoon. These little fish are in high-demand all around the world as they make for colorful additions to any marine aquarium.
If you’re someone who wants to know more about the clownfish or wish to keep one as a pet, below you’ll get to know everything there is to know about this little marine fish.

Clownfish -Description

Clownfish are a small sized fish which is often found near tropical coral reefs. It is also known as anemonefish as it lives inside the fronds of sea anemones. There are different types of clownfish with regards to their color and size, but the most common type has orange and white stripes. Clownfish is considered beautiful due to their features and bright colors.

Size and Body Features of Clownfish

Cinnamon clownfish
Cinnamon clownfish

The most common clownfish is almost 4.3 inches or 11 cm in length. Its body is best described as having an oval shape and chunky in appearance. From the front, it has a somewhat round and compressed look.
In the Northern Australian parts of the world, you might get to see one that’s black and white in color as opposed to the usual orange and white. However, as mentioned above, most clownfish species color ranges from orange to reddish brown with three white vertical stripes lined with black. The body’s patterns cover the fins too.

The Amphiprion ocellaris happens to be different from the Amphiprion percula as it has a thicker black outlining and the former one has a relatively taller dorsal fin. Furthermore, the former has 11 dorsal fin spines while the latter has only 10 dorsal fin spines.

Clownfish Species and Family

clarkes clownfish
clarkes clownfish

The clownfish has a total of 28 recognized species, and they mostly live in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. You can also find them in the northern parts of Australian east coast as well as in the Great Barrier Reef and even in the Red Sea. The red-sea species is called the red clownfish. These fish live together in a large colony, where there will be a dominant female and a single male that mates with her. The rest of the colony will be subordinate males. If the female dies then a male will change gender to replace the lead female.

While they thrive in the ocean, in captivity, in a home aquarium they might die unless properly cared for. When the correct conditions are supplied, such as temperature, salinity, feeding and the right anemone as well as proper biological balance the the fish can thrive in your aquarium. Furthermore, breeding them in captivity is difficult for beginners. But some experts are breeding them regularly.

Clownfish Locomotion

false percula clownfish
false percula clownfish

Clownfish swim with the help of their fins in the water. The fins of a clownfish are used for stabilization, direction, and giving rise to a propelling motion for swimming. Each fin has a particular function.
The dorsal fins assist them in keeping the fish vertically stable. The caudal fin(tail fin) propels the fish forward by being flapped from side to side. The ventral fins like the dorsal fin provide better stability and some steering and are located in the pelvic region. The pectoral fins are located forward of the pectoral fins and are used as brakes and also assist in steering. When clownfish are threatened this little fish will hurry back to the safety of its sea anemone.
Immunity

The sting of a sea anemone is somewhat deadly and poisonous to most fish. However, the clownfish have developed immunity to it because of a mucous-coated skin. There is some debate as to whether the mucous protects from the anemone’s sting or that the mucous fools the anemone into not stinging the clownfish. Clownfish use sea anemones for shelter, protection from predators, as well as for food. Keep in mind that depending on the species of the clownfish, some are innately immune to sea anemone while others have to acclimate (or get used) to the stings by rubbing themselves against the tentacles.

Clownfish Feeding Habits

percula clownfish
percula clownfish

The clownfish is omnivorous and can feed on both small animals as well as plants. They eat a variety of food like plankton, mollusks, algae, and small crustaceans. The diet varies depending on the habitat they have adapted to and the size of the fish. Clownfish are known to eat small organisms that are killed by sea anemones.

Clownfish Predators

Clownfish are often preyed upon by larger fish and other marine life, and they rely on their speed and protection by the sea anemone to survive. Humans are also a threat to clownfish as a lot of their species are captured to be sold off to the aquarium trade and bought by hobbyists some of whom don’t know how to take care of them.

Clownfish Habitat

clownfish living in sea anemone
clownfish living in sea anemone

Clownfish are found in the Western Pacific Ocean and the Eastern Indian Ocean. They are also found in Japan, Northern Australia, and Southeast Asia. The Amphiprion ocellaris lives in a depth of 15 meters in the form of schools in the sheltered lagoons and the outer reef slopes. Species such as Stichodactyla gigantea, Heteractis magnifica, and Stichodactyla mertensii are often found to be in a symbiotic relationship with clownfish.

Clownfish and sea anemone Symbiosis and Mutualism

Clownfish have a symbiotic as well as a mutualistic relationship with the sea anemone. The anemone provides them with food from the dead tentacles and the food scraps left over and also protects them from the clownfish from predators. While on the other hand, clownfish defends the sea anemone from the parasites and predators of anemone. The excrement of the clownfish are also used as a source of nutrients by the sea anemone.

Furthermore, the sea anemone provides a suitable nest for the fish to lay eggs. The clown fish excretes nitrogen compounds which are used by the anemone for the regeneration of its parts and tissue growth. The clownfish have an attractive color, which may attract smaller fishes to their doom. The clownfish swimming between the anemone’s tentacle keeps them aerated because of the water flow.

Clownfish Sexuality and Reproduction

baby clownfish
baby clownfish

You can find clownfish near a single sea anemone. They have a breeding female and male fish with a large amount of young male clown fish. They are hermaphrodites. This means that they’re all born male, but when the breeding season approaches one of them develops into a female. In a situation when a breeding female dies, the large male develops into a female and then breeds with the next active male in the same habitat.

The female lays eggs on the sea anemone on a flat surface. The number of clownfish eggs can vary from hundreds to thousands, depending on the species. On a full moon, the female clownfish lays the eggs while the male protects and guards them until they hatch after a week. They are breed in warm water and can reproduce all year round.
The breeding season begins mostly with the lunar cycle. When the moon is at a high level, the male breeding fish attracts the female breeding fish. They display a courting behavior which includes biting and chasing the female and extending fins. A rapid downward and upward motion is also demonstrated by the male to attract the female. The female normally lays almost 400-1600 eggs in a cycle, and the nest needs to be large enough to ensure the survival of all the eggs.

Each female’s breeding tenure is around 12 years, and it can be more if the size of the breeding female is large. The breeding female has a body larger than the breeding male. The non-breeder males have a size smaller than the two breeders, and the size hierarchy descends progressively.

Clownfish Taxonomy

The clown fish are identified and distinguished on the basis of their morphological features. The scales on their head, body proportions, color, and tooth shape, and size has helped the biologists to recognize them. On the basis of these features, they have been categorized into 6 categories. The skunk complex, maroon complex, clarkii complex, clownfish complex, tomato complex, and saddleback complex. All fish within a complex look almost alike.

Clownfish in the Aquarium

clownfish in the aquarium
clownfish in the aquarium

The clownfish comprises of around 43% of the aquarium trade with regards to fish bought for the home aquarium. Sadly, a majority of aquarium clownfish are captured from the wild. Unchecked capture of clownfish has led to a decrease in the natural population in a lot of areas. While adding clownfish to an aquarium might sound like a good idea, the wild population has to be considered. Buying aquarium bred clownfish is a worthy goal.

There are some members of clownfish like the maroon clownfish which are known to become aggressive when held in captivity. The percula clownfish, on the other hand, are suitable for aquariums as they’re known to adapt and live peacefully. So, make sure that you know which species you’re introducing in your aquarium. Having an aggressive little clownfish won’t sit well with other marine life.

Keeping sea anemones in an aquarium isn’t always easy. However, clownfish are known to adapt to this too. In the absence of a sea anemone, they can make large polyps and soft corals their home. The clownfish is accustomed to defending its habitat, and once they have settled down in a certain coral, they will defend their home.

Make sure that your aquarium has an appropriate reef structure (sand, live rock, and more). Also, allow your aquarium environment to mature before introducing the fish. Furthermore, if you feed the fish on a fixed schedule it’ll learn to anticipate the food. Watching the fish come near the water’s surface for food can be fun to watch.

So, if you’re interested in having clownfish as a pet, make sure it has a suitable environment (add in a few corals) for it to live properly. Once that is all achieved, you will have happy clownfish that will be a joy to watch.

The nano marine aquarium

The fascination of the nano marine aquarium

Larger aquariums are better than nano marine aquariums if you have the money

If you are a newbie marine aquarist, then you may be tempted by the lower cost of buying a smaller aquarium. Or you don’t want to commit to a larger aquarium until you know you can look after aquarium fish. So you might buy a smaller tank as a trial. This can be a mistake. If your dealer is persuading you to buy a larger tank then listen to him, if you can.

A small aquarium, especially a marine aquarium, is more difficult to cope with because of sudden water quality problems. In a bigger aquarium these problems are diluted by the larger quantity of water. Any rise or fall in salinity, pollution or other water parameter will be much slower in a large aquarium than a small aquarium. It is a falsity to believe a small aquarium is easier to maintain than a bigger aquarium. The opposite is true.

A freshwater nano aquarium is certainly much easier

List of beginners recommended saltwater fish

Comparison of large aquariums with nano marine aquariums

You will still need to buy all the same equipment for a nano aquarium as a large reef aquarium. For example hygrometer and water test kits. Some of the equipment is just miniaturised versions of the ones available for large aquariums, but the price is not miniaturised being about the same price. Savings in costs are usually made in the price of the aquarium, stand or cabinet, price of lighting, costs of live rock, cost of live stock because you will only be able to keep a small number of fish and invertebrates. Smaller heaters are a little cheaper. But the rest of the equipment is about the same, including on going costs.

Your first foray into keeping a marine aquarium will have a greater chance of success if your choice of tank size is at least 160 litres. With a tank of less than 160 litres, monitoring and maintenance work doubles. You will have to buy a good quality test kit that is easy to use and you will have to keep using it daily or even twice a day. The water has to be checked daily for salinity levels, ammonia, nitrites and nitrates. Adjustments and interventions will almost certainly have to be made more often. Things change so fast in such a small aquarium that salinity levels due to evaporation or pollution levels may change quickly and kill your fish or invertebrates in a day. In a larger aquarium these changes are slower and your fish have more time to adapt. And there is more opportunity for you to catch these dangers and correct them in time.

Beginners saltwater aquarium here

First Saltwater aquarium here

Stocking the nano marine aquarium

For many aquarists the prohibited costs of the larger aquariums leave them with no option but to start with a smaller aquarium. To be successful in a smaller aquarium your choice of fish and invertebrates must be made with more care. Corals from shallower waters are more tolerant of changes to water conditions than their deeper water counterparts. Also, your choice of fish is limited to the smaller and hardier species. Common clownfish, pyjama cardinalfish, dwarf angelfish and neon gobies make the best choices for the smaller aquarium and are great beginner fish anyway.

Once you have fish in a smaller marine aquarium then your options for invertebrates becomes limited both in the number and range of invertebrates you can successfully keep together with your fish. Shrimps and small hermit crabs are the hardiest invertebrates that might survive with fish present.

It is better to understock and overfilter for the first few months. It will take this long for your filters, live rock and live sand to fully mature. In this period you will get practice and experience of running your aquarium.

Maintenance of your nano marine aquarium

More careful attention to the diet and especially the feeding has to be made to make sure that the fish are well fed without allowing waste food to occur that will pollute the aquarium. If you good have experience in keeping fish then you will know what to do. For the less experienced, great attention has to be made to uneaten bits of food.

In a smaller aquarium it is better to have a protein skimmer and a uv filter. But don’t overdo it. The protein skimmer will remove essential nutrients while the UV filter may kill off helpful plankton. You must have live rock and live sand which will provide biological filtration. Once established this will greatly enhance your chance of succeeding.

You will have to buy the live rock. Cured live rock is better but more expensive than uncured live rock. Uncured live rock will cure in your aquarium. The effect of this is that pollutants from dying organisms will seep into your aquarium water for weeks until the rock cures. The live sand will develop by the migration of microscopic lifeforms and bacteria from the live rock into your sand. Also have a good external filter to perform additional biological filtration. Remove excess waste from the filter media by squeezing out once a week. Do not rinse out or you will lose the nitrifying bacteria.

Buying several small pieces of live rock and plenty of ocean rock is one way to create enough live rock in your aquarium but you will have to wait while the life from the live rock migrates to the ocean rock. This process takes time. if you have the patience then you can save money this way. Remember live rock will start to die when not submerged in sea water. Newly bought live rock from your dealer needs to be kept in seawater on the way back home. Make sure you buy solid live rock and ocean that is not prone to crumbling.

It is highly recommended to do many small partial water changes to the nano aquarium. Have a large container of pre-mixed saltwater. This will reduce the amount of times you have to mix water and sea salt to create seawater. The use of reverse osmosis water is highly recommended. Buy a RO water kit that will convert your tap water into pure water. Otherwise you will be spending a small fortune on continually buying RO water from your dealer.

Self contained nano marine aquariums

There are many self contained nano aquariums. These have advantages and disadvantages. Some are enclosed systems that reduce the water evaporation. The downside to this is that they tend to overheat, because of the enclosed lighting, especially in summer. The open top varieties are better in this regard but will require topping up with water daily to maintain the required salinity. Because of their all in one nature, these aquarium set ups work out cheaper. But invariably modifications will be necessary to these set ups to make them work.

Conclusions

Today, you have a better chance than ever before of having a successful nano aquarium because of
1. Advances in technology of filtration, monitoring and maintenance equipment
2. The wider availability of aquarium bred fish
3. Wide availability of good knowledge of the marine aquarium environment
4. The price of marine fish and live rock is falling because of the success of home produced sources
So, why not give it a try and start enjoying the colourful world of marine fish.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You can buy clownfish and dwarf angelfish online with home delivery in the US.


Featuring Angelfish

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Breeding tropical marine fish

pair of clownfish breeding

How to start breeding tropical marine fish

pair of clownfish breeding
pair of clownfish breeding

If you have been successfully keeping saltwater fish in a marine tank for a while then perhaps you would like to move on to breeding your fish.
Many keepers of saltwater aquariums are content to just keep fish. For the brave few I will outline the basic steps that you need to be take in order to ensure a healthy brood. I will assume that you are familiar with the basics of marine aquarium care.

Feeding saltwater fish here

Saltwater aquarium maintenance here

Marine corals here

Equipment and food for breeding marine fish

Besides having a male and female fish, you will need to do some preparation for your fish if you would like to enjoy successful breeding:

• Breeding tank—You will want to setup a separate bare-bottom breeding tank that your fish larvae can comfortably live in until they become adults. It may help to have several tanks ready, depending on the size of the brood you plan on keeping. Large filtration is out of the question, but a simple air stone can help keep the water moving.

• Live food cultures—Fish fry will thrive if they given a continuous supply of live food. You will want to begin preparing your live food cultures before breeding starts so that you do not have to rush after your fish have bred. It is recommended to culture both rotifers and baby brine shrimp as the best two starter foods.

Many saltwater fish will begin their lives in a larval state, which often requires the set up of complex larval rearing systems in which multiple breeding tanks are connected to the main tank through a sump and constantly fed rotifers and live food cultures. If you are breeding your first tropical marine fish, it is advisable to choose fish that you can raise in a simple breeding tank without having to worry about the larval phase.

Selecting which marine fish to begin breeding

Since some marine fish require such a complex breeding set up, you, as a beginner, should focus on breeding easier species of saltwater fish that are simpler to breed. Avoid breeding fish that have a “pelagic larval phase”. The following list of fish have fry without a protracted larval phase.

male banggai cardinalfish brooding a mouthfull of young fish
male banggai cardinalfish brooding a mouthfull of young fish

• Banggai cardinals,
• Clownfish,
• Bristletail filefish,
• Green wolf eels,
• Neon gobies,
• Dottyback fish.

If you have a healthy pair of any of the above species in your tank, you can reasonably expect them to breed at some point. Most saltwater species will breed on their own when kept in excellent water conditions. However, certain species may take a long time to form a sexual pair.

If your fish are just not breeding despite keeping excellent water conditions with lots of hiding places then try moving your pair of fish into a low-light spawning tank. Orchid dottybacks, for instance, will breed readily when paired off in a small, covered tank with some decoration.

What to do when spawning begins

Generally, your job will begin when the eggs hatch. Up until then, one of the parent fish will usually defend their eggs, and will generally do a good job of it. Once the eggs hatch into larvae, however, you need to get them into a separate tank and get them fed.

Collecting your larvae from the main tank can seem like a difficult task, but one important tip can help: fish larvae tend to be attracted to light. To collect your larvae, follow these steps:

• Turn off the lights and water flow in your tank,
• Shine a small flashlight at the corner closest to the larvae,
• Let them accumulate in the light for a minute or two,
• Use a dip cup or siphon to collect them and deposit them in their own tank.

Raising the larvae of marine fish

Feeding the fry is the main stumbling block in reproducing marine fish. Many aquarists fail at this stage or lose all but a few of the fry. There is definitely money to be made for the aquarist who can successfully feed and raise a whole brood to a saleable size regularly.

Your fish larvae will need to be fed frequently and in large quantities. In the sea they would be surrounded by a rich variety of live plankton. Larval fish are voracious eaters and their appetite will surprise you. Moreover, their waste and waste of their live food will make frequent water changes necessary.

It is important to remember that your marine fish fry, being so small, will be unable to catch all of the food in the tank, and you will inevitably lose some food to waste and even some fish to starvation. These larvae need to have food within several millimetres of themselves in order to catch anything, which means saturating your tank with rotifers or plankton. Moreover these rotifers must be fed too. The rotifers must be fed with nutritious live algae. Ultimately this nutrition passes to the larvae via the rotifers. Algae can be raised with a light source and nutrient rich saltwater.

In fact, you may find that you are quickly running out of food to feed your fish, which leads to a very important rule: Never raise more fish than you can feed. You may have to cull some of the less fit members of the brood in order to realise this goal, but it will save the rest of them and ensure the health of the rest. A healthy minimum concentration would be 10-15 rotifers per millilitre of aquarium water in order to simulate the plankton they would find in the wild. A good system is to have and feed the rotifers in the same tank as the larvae. This, though, puts a heavier burden on the raising tanks oxygen demands and ammonia levels.

With frequent water changes, a well-oxygenated tank and lots of food, you should start seeing growth in your fish. The water changes will be very important since both your fish and your rotifers will cause ammonia levels to climb, and your filtration will be limited to fluidised sand filters, trickle filters and protein skimming – anything that uses greater flow will suck up the larvae.

Caring for your fish larvae

When breeding tropical marine fish, you will need to take care against bacterial infection. Siphoning out the waste properly twice a day should help reduce the risk of harmful bacterial colonies developing on decomposing organic waste. Your fish larvae have brand new immune systems that will not protect them from infection.

Protein skimming, again, can help greatly here by removing organic material and bacteria from the water column. A UV steriliser is also a very good idea for your breeding tank. If any of your larvae get sick, they need to be culled immediately to protect the rest of the brood.

aquarium bred two month old clownfish
aquarium bred two month old clownfish

Once your fish are large enough, you can begin feeding them baby brine shrimp as they gradually mature into juvenile fish and become ready to be weaned onto a diet of dried foods. While rotifers are ideal for the very beginning, eventually your fish will grow too large to be effectively fed by these tiny organisms.

One last important thing to consider: Since your larvae respond to light by moving towards it, any light source outside the glass of your aquarium will attract them. The result of this is that it will cause your larvae to bump their heads against the aquarium glass until they die. This behaviour also occurs if the larvae have run out of food. To prevent this you will need to cover your aquarium’s bottom and sides with a dark material.

If you have followed these instructions and researched the needs of your individual species, you will be well on your way to successfully breeding tropical marine fish for the first time!

Succeed with marine corals

Final complete marine aquarium set up

How to succeed with marine corals in your reef aquarium

Final complete marine aquarium set up
Final complete marine aquarium set up

If you have already set up a successful marine aquarium with a host of saltwater fish, live rock, and perhaps even a few invertebrates, you might be entertaining the possibility of keeping marine corals in your tank as well. While you may have heard that keeping corals in your reef aquarium is a difficult task, it can be a vastly rewarding experience if it is approached correctly. And may not be too big a step up from the set up you already have if your marine aquarium has been running for quite a while.

Saltwater aquarium maintenance

Saltwater fish for beginners

Live rock and live sand

Consider what your set up offers

As always, a larger tank will provide you with a sufficient volume to reduce eventual problems with water quality management. If you are fortunate enough to be the owner of a large tank, you will find that the health of your fish will be easier to manage during the period when you introduce corals to your tank. The larger your tank is, the better you will be able to adapt it to the presence of coral colonies.

If you already have high quality filtration and an adequate lighting set up, you are well on your way to enjoying a successful reef tank. In terms of filtration, you will need a greater amount of water flow throughout your tank than you may currently have, since corals are immobile and will need to draw their nutrients from the water itself as it passes through them.

Your aquarium’s lighting set up will have to closely replicate natural sunlight: a spectrum of blue UV light for 12 hours a day and a full spectrum white light for 8–10 hours a day would be the minimum for ensuring a healthy coral population in your reef aquarium.

Water quality and management

The ideal temperature at which most marine corals will thrive is between 23–25° C, with 25°C representing an optimum temperature for coral tanks. Temperature is very important due to the effect that warm water will have on the level of dissolved oxygen present: Oxygen level will decrease with higher temperatures, causing respiratory problems for your corals.

The most dependable way of keeping your water temperature constant is through the use of a refrigerating chiller with a temperature gauge. While it is possible to maintain the appropriate temperature without a chiller in many circumstances, you may want to use one in order to give your marine corals the best opportunity to thrive.

If you have a quality filtration system in place in an already cycled tank, you will not have to worry too much about ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate levels, but organic compounds could become a problem if they are allowed to break down into harmful waste products. The use of a protein skimmer can be a great help when keeping a coral reef aquarium.

Corals tend to do their best with a pH level between 8.0–8.3. You will want to test your water regularly to ensure that the levels do not change after you introduce corals to your tank, since they can upset this delicate balance of water acidity and harm your entire tank population in the process.

One of the key indicators that aquarists use to determine whether their tank is ready for the introduction of live corals can be seen in the live rock already present: When your live rock begins developing spots of purple, this indicates the presence of coralline algae, which grows as a result of the same conditions necessary for the growth of marine corals.

Choosing and introducing live corals to your tank

Once you have the appropriate conditions ready, you can introduce your corals to the tank. Proper coral choice is important here, since dissimilar species of coral can be very difficult to maintain. Two basic types of corals commonly found in reef aquariums are as follows:

  1. corals, which feature a hard exoskeleton and are also often called hard corals, and;
  2. Soft corals, which do not have an exoskeleton and often inhabit different waters then their stony counterparts.

You may be tempted to mix these two types of corals, but you are recommended to stick with one or the other for your first coral experience. You should thoroughly research the species you would like to incorporate in your tank to make sure they are compatible—coral competition and aggression is not uncommon in reef tanks.

Soft corals are generally easier to care for then stony ones, although not always: preferred choices include any of the following species:

  • Finger leather coral
  • Pulse coral
  • Jasmine polyps
  • Star polyps,
  • Clove polyps
  • Cabbage leather coral

If you would prefer stony varieties, peaceful stony corals such as the popular candy cane coral can make an excellent choice for your first foray into keeping a coral aquarium. Also, whisker coral, also known as Duncan coral, can make a fine addition. Bubble coral is easy to care for but can be aggressive in temperament.

Once you have your tank prepared and have purchased your desired coral fragments, you are ready to attach them to the interior of your tank. Specialized aquarium glue exists for exactly this purpose, and can help make the process much easier than attempting to secure the coral with toothpicks and hoping it sticks.

Coral placement depends on the strength of your tank’s lighting and your corals’ specific needs. Marine corals may need to be gradually acclimated to your tank lights, which can be done by placing them at the bottom of the tank at first and then gradually moving their foundation upwards over the course of a week.

Once you attach the corals to the interior of your tank, you will have to carefully monitor the water conditions in order to make sure that no abrupt changes take place. This, along with regular maintenance, will ensure a long and healthy life for your corals.

Coral maintenance and care

Once your marine corals begin getting accustomed to their new lives inside your reef aquarium, you will need to take care of them in order to ensure lasting success with your reef aquarium. You should be testing your water weekly for pH changes as well as ammonia and nitrite levels, and have a cleaning routine ready that includes both your filtration system and your lights as well.

Some species of corals have more specific feeding and maintenance needs than others, but if you choose to keep varieties of coral that require the weekly addition of coral food, the trace elements you should generally add include calcium, strontium, iron, and magnesium. Other than this, your monthly partial water change schedule should run normally.

Responsible coral harvesting

As a last word on keeping a successful coral aquarium, you should be aware that there are two types of coral suppliers in the aquarium trade: those that are licensed by the Convention for International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and those that are not. Licensed providers cannot exceed an annual quota of coral sales, and are compelled to source fragments from sustainable areas.

Licensed suppliers also contribute to marine conservation, and you should always purchase your coral fragments (or whole live corals, if your budget permits) from these vendors. Unlicensed coral sellers can do enormous damage to already endangered natural habitats.

If you follow this guide and choose your marine corals carefully, you should be well one your way to enjoying a beautiful and colourful coral display in the comfort of your own home. Remember that some species such as the clown fish live between the fronds of coral. And so will make a lively display. Sit back relax and enjoy the show!

Review: Ultimate Secrets to Saltwater Aquarium Fish and Corals

well designed marine aquarium

Review: Ultimate Secrets to Saltwater Aquarium Fish and Corals

by Andrej Brummer

The ultimate investment in knowledge for every aquarium owner

Successful marine aquarium by Andrej Brummer
Successful marine aquarium by Andrej Brummer

With no previous experience of owning a marine aquarium, I was daunted by the responsibility of keeping marine creatures alive and healthy, when I had no idea what equipment to buy, which fish to choose or how to stock the tank. Ultimate Secrets is a fantastic investment, whatever your level of experience, whether you are nervous about setting up your first aquarium, if you own an aquarium and can’t figure out why things go wrong, or if you have years of experience and want a comprehensive reference book on hand to help you deal with unexpected issues.
This book will help you look after your marine aquarium correctly so you build a healthy and compatible aquatic community of fish and invertebrates into beautiful and entertaining part of the ocean in your own home. It is easy to navigate and has a simple conversational style with extremely informative explanations, so you will find it easy to follow the instructions and understand exactly what you are doing.

 

 

 

selection of clownfish
selection of clownfish

I will be keeping Ultimate Secrets next to my aquarium so I am ready to deal with any eventuality. I showed my copy to a friend who has owned an aquarium for years, and he also found the information valuable and inspiring.
The author, Andrej Brummer has an inspiring passion for marine creatures and their environment. Brummer has shown me that saltwater aquarium owners are creating a safe nurturing ecosystem for marine creatures whose natural habitat is becoming endangered. He has channelled his knowledge and experience as a scientist and expert aquarist into this comprehensive guide, so you will know how to care for all the marine inhabitants including fish, coral, plankton and healthy bacteria.
Brummer divides his extensive material into short informative chapters covering everything from the basics, such as buying equipment, stocking your aquarium and feeding your marine family, to expert advice on filtration lighting, rockscaping, making marine organisms work for you and even how to perform surgery if necessary! Ultimate Secrets has several colourful charts, including one that identifies 16 popular saltwater aquarium species so you can build up a compatible marine community, according to their feeding habits and their activity levels.

Review by Kirsten Ehrlich Davies.

The only shortcoming of the book is there is no information on breeding marine fish. Perhaps because of the complexity of the subject Brummer thought that it needed a whole book dedicated to the topic. We await the sequel.

Brummer is the aquarists version of Steven Seagal. If you click on the correct picture you get the chance to buy a kick ass book. If you click on the wrong picture you will just get your ass kicked.

Steven seagal
Steven seagal
andrej brummer
andrej brummer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hi, I’m Andrej Brummer, the #SaltwaterScientist

I am a biological scientist who has had a life-long interest in the world of marine organisms. Growing up on the sea shores of New Zealand and Australia I learned a healthy respect for ocean conservation and sustainable aquarium keeping, but I do still eat seafood however

In my formative years I will admit, I killed many a fish and a few corals in aquariums before I learned what it took to keep captive marine life thriving through trial, error and scientific training.

I enjoy raving about Tangs, LPS corals and how to be a sustainable saltwater aquarium hobbyist to anyone that will listen.

Now I am proud to say I have advised and educated over 3000 saltwater aquarium hobbyists through my best selling ebook.

Set up your first tropical marine tank

Final complete marine aquarium set up

Your first saltwater tank set up

well designed marine aquarium
well designed marine aquarium

If you have already enjoyed the success of keeping your own tropical freshwater aquarium and would like to move onto a more beautiful but complex aquaria, your next step may be to attempt your first tropical marine tank. A saltwater tank setup tends to require a bit more investment on your part, both financially and in terms of setting up the complete marine aquarium , but the fascinating end result is worth it.

While at first glance, it may seem that keeping a saltwater aquarium should be the same as keeping a freshwater one, but with added salt. However, there are some key differences that you will need to pay attention to in order to get your tank set up properly. One of the first that should be taken into account before you start buying any marine tank equipment is the type of set up you would like to keep.

See also beginners saltwater tank step by step
 
and live rock and live sand
 
and beginners saltwater fish
 

Three types of tropical saltwater tank setups

Fish only marine aquarium
Fish only marine aquarium is quite lively and active

Your first tropical marine tank will fall into one of three broad categories:

• Fish only tank

• Fish only with live rock (FOWLR) tank

• Complete reef tank (as above but with corals and invertebrates)

There are a wide variety of advantages and disadvantages to keeping each type of these saltwater tank setups. For your first tropical marine tank, however, it is important to keep things as simple as possible so that you can get acquainted with the specifics of keeping saltwater fish before moving on to more complicated setups involving corals and invertebrates.

Of the three choices above, the easiest option is the fish only with live rock tank. Intuitively you might think a fish only tank would be simpler to keep. Not so, the truth is that maintaining the correct water quality and filtration without live rock will require more work on your part. Live rock provides vital biological processes that eat up a lot of waste matter from the fish, purifying the water.

marine aquarium with live sand, coral and fish
marine aquarium with live sand, coral and fish

Reef tanks, too require a lot of hard work and monitoring in order to get running smoothly and maintaining, and are often some of the most expensive tanks to keep. They tend to require more equipment and more expensive livestock than tanks that focus solely on fish and live rock.

If you have decided to keep a fish and live rock tank and are ready to begin purchasing equipment and setting up, the list and guide below will help you get everything you need to begin.

What you need for your first tropical marine tank

As mentioned above, the technical requirements of maintaining your marine tank will be a bit more complex than those of a freshwater tank. You will need to collect the following equipment in order to get started:

• Aquarium As always, a larger tank is generally easier to keep and will make sudden changes in water quality less of a danger for your fish. At least 100 litres is recommended for your first tropical marine tank.

live rock is great for biological filtration
live rock is great for biological filtration

• Substrate There are three main options to choose from here: a shallow sand bed, a deep sand bed, or a bare bottom tank. A shallow sand bed is often ideal for first-time saltwater aquarists.

• Live Rock Getting about one 1 kilogram per 7.5 litres of high-quality live rock is important for your tank’s biological filtration.

• Saltwater Mix There are many brands of saltwater mix available both online and at your local aquarium shop.

• Refractometer This measures your water’s salt content, and is often included as part of high quality saltwater testing kits. Hydrometers also work, but tend to be less accurate.

• Protein Skimmer Your marine tank will need a protein skimmer. While it is possible to run a tank without one, you will have to work much more in order to avoid problems with algae and fish waste— you are better off starting with a skimmer that will take care of this for you.

• UV Steriliser This useful device uses high-frequency ultraviolet light to kill free-floating bacteria in your water. This makes it a type of filter, but one that uses light instead of mechanical or biological means to keep your water clean and healthy.

• Multiple Power Heads These devices provide water flow, which is very important in saltwater tanks. Turbulent flow, on the order of 10-20 times the tank volume, will help guarantee a clean, healthy tank by preventing detritus from accumulating.

• Reverse Osmosis Water Filter A water filter of this kind of necessary for preparing tap water. It removes minerals from tap water. So when you add sea salt to this water you will get pure sea water.

• Heater And Thermometer Some saltwater aquarists choose to purchase two smaller heaters instead of one large one, in order to avoid crisis should a heater malfunction.

• Test Kits Be sure to stock up on test kits for ammonia, nitrite, and nitrates. These will be very useful during the initial cycling of the tank.

• Lights Thankfully, FOWLR tanks do not have very strict lighting requirements like reef tanks do. A mix of white and blue actinic lights should be sufficient for most fish and live rock setups.

• Quarantine tank You may need to setup a small, bare quarantine tank for your fish, as saltwater organisms may have a hard time getting comfortable in captivity, and can easily get sick.

Choosing fish for your tropical marine tank

clown-fish
clown fish is a good marine beginner’s fish

While keeping your marine tank opens the possibility of keeping a wide variety of exotic fish and invertebrates, you will want to start with simple and inexpensive saltwater fish in the beginning. While the accidental loss of a fish is always a tragedy, that tragedy could be more pronounced if you just lost a rare exotic fish that cost more than £100!

The best fish to begin with are simple, hardy species that can help you get used to caring for the saltwater environment, such as:

• Clownfish (though these do prefer to live in coral)

• Blennies

• Damselfish

• Gobies

Putting your first tropical marine tank together

After you have gathered all of the equipment that you need, you can begin preparing your marine tank for activity. The first thing you will want to do is wash out your aquarium— be sure not to use any soap, as the residue will be harmful for your fish.

Painting your aquarium background black or deep blue makes fish colours stand out beautifully. However you might prefer a stick on background. When the tank is suitably prepared, you can begin adding pre-mixed saltwater to it.

Fill a standard 20 litre bucket with filtered water that is free from chlorine and chloramine, add the salt mixture slowly, referring to the instructions on the packet it came in. Stir well and refer to your refractometer frequently. Once you have a specific gravity reading of 1.021 and 1.024, you can add the water to your aquarium, repeating as necessary until the tank is filled.

Once the tank is full, you can activate your equipment and let the tank begin the cycling process. After a day or two of water circulation, you can add your live rock to the tank.

Curing live rock

Fish swimming amongst live rock
Fish swimming amongst live rock

The greatest expense of your marine tank will probably be live rock. High quality specimens can get costly, but offer excellent biological filtration. Before you can enjoy these benefits, however, you will need to cure the live rock for some time; between a week or two months depending on the condition of the rock.

To cure live rock, drain some of the aquarium water and place the live rock inside the tank, preferably in the centre and with your power heads pointed directly at it. Every few days, you will need to turn off the power to the tank and clean the live rock with an old toothbrush to remove debris and dead organisms. After each cleaning, siphon the debris and refill the tank with pre-mixed saltwater.

This process needs to be repeated every few days until the water has no ammonia readings, no nitrite readings, and a smell somewhat like the ocean. When the tank is cycled, you are ready to add sand.

Adding sand to your tank

The best way to properly add your sand substrate to the tank is by draining some of the saltwater into a 20 litre bucket and emptying your sand into the bucket. Stir the resulting mixture until you see dust and dirt rising. Siphon off this dust and dirt before it settles. Repeat this process until there is not dust and dirt.

Once the sand is cleaned, you can ladle it into your aquarium. If any sand gets caught on your live rock, use a power head to blow it off so that your rock maintains uninterrupted contact with the water. In a few days, if all goes well, you should be ready to starting adding fish to your tank.

Finishing your first tropical marine tank

Final complete marine aquarium set up
Complete saltwater tank setup

After letting your tank circulate for a few days, you should begin to see consistent water quality readings such as:

• A temperature of 24-27°C;
• Specific gravity between 1.020 and 1.024;
• pH between 8.0 and 8.4;
• Ammonia and nitrite readings of 0;
• Nitrite readings of less than 20 ppm;
• Carbonate hardness between 7-10 dKH.

Once this happens, you are ready to begin adding fish to your tank. It is highly recommended to use some of your water to make a small quarantine tank for them to get used to first, reducing the risk of disease.

Add your fish slowly, one at a time so that the tank can adjust to the increased biological load. Your fish will be stressed out at first, but should begin acting normally and feeling comfortable after a few days. At that point, you can test the water and, conditions permitting, add your next fish. In a short time, you will have a fully stocked saltwater aquarium. Now you can sit back and enjoy your small piece of the ocean. But remember you still need to keep monitoring your water quality and topping up your aquarium with newly made seawater regularly.