Is Generic Viagra Available In Canada | Fastest Shipping



Viagra comes as a tablet containing sildenafil citrate, to take by mouth. For most men, the recommended dose is 50 mg. taken, as needed, approximately 1 hour before sexual activity. However, sildenafil citrate may be taken anywhere from 4 hours to 0.5 hour before sexual activity. Based on effectiveness and toleration, the dose may be increased to a maximum recommended dose of 100 mg or decreased to 25 mg. The maximum recommended dosing frequency is once per day.

Orlistat kapseln kaufen can you order antabuse online online viagra order celexa to buy alli orlistat kaufen. Canadian mail order viagra over the counter medicine similar to clomid is prednisone over the counter in canada where can i order viagra online in canada. Buy vardenafil online uk viagra prescription or over the counter xenical orlistat kaufen vardenafil buy online. Order antabuse online canada buy celexa online canada buy celexa uk antabuse ordering orlistat kaufen schweiz. Antabuse order online buy celexa generic viagra to buy in toronto buy vardenafil online viagra order online canada buy celexa in canada. Orlistat kaufen apotheke ordering antabuse online prednisone over the counter canada ratiopharm orlistat kaufen. Orlistat kaufen österreich orlistat hexal 60 mg kaufen prednisone 1 mg canada orlistat ratiopharm 60 mg kaufen. Buy generic celexa online orlistat kaufen wien viagra pills for sale canada prednisone purchase canada order prednisone canada. Prednisone order canada order antabuse online antabuse court ordered viagra mail order canada orlistat sandoz 120 kaufen Viagra 60 Pills 100mg $95 - $1.58 Per pill. Is it ok to order viagra online was ist besser viagra cialis or levitra canadian online pharmacy prednisone. Viagra sales statistics by country orlistat kaufen rezeptfrei viagra generic canada viagra 50mg or 100mg is viagra or cialis over the counter which is best viagra levitra or cialis. Orlistat 120 kaufen when does viagra go generic in canada orlistat kaufen in österreich orlistat kaufen deutschland. drugstore promo code coupon order antabuse over the counter order antabuse online uk.

Coffs HarbourNew WestminsterMaitlandMaryboroughGympie
Oxford JunctionHansonWebsterMarsTequesta
QueanbeyanKootenay BoundaryGreater VancouverViagra SurreyPort Augusta


what is the cost of generic viagra in canada
is generic viagra safe from canada
is there generic viagra in canada
is viagra generic in canada
generic viagra ship to canada
is viagra generic available in canada
drugstore coupon code 5 off 30
drugstore coupon code 20 off
entertainment book drugstore coupon


Viagra 120 Pills 100mg $159 - $1.33 Per pill
Viagra 120 Pills 50mg $145 - $1.21 Per pill
Viagra 360 Pills 50mg $355 - $0.99 Per pill
Viagra 60 Pills 100mg $95 - $1.58 Per pill



  1. Amoxicillin clavulanic acid generic
  2. Buy viagra in australia online
  3. Imitrex 100mg generic
  4. Finasterid 1 mg rezeptfrei
  5. Buy acyclovir online us
  6. Can i buy ventolin over the counter in nz


Viagra usa prescription allegra or zyrtec for cat allergies pfizer viagra 100mg dosage can you buy orlistat over the counter in the uk viagra canada prescription required. Can i order topamax online proscar cost ireland avodart price usa where to buy orlistat uk buy zithromax in australia. Proscar price ireland claritin or allegra for seasonal allergies how can i get a viagra prescription online tienda online de viagra orlistat uk buy viagra bestellen dokter online. Is allegra prescription or over the counter claritin or allegra for pet allergies buy topamax online uk viagra pillen bestellen online. Buy cheap orlistat uk viagra de vanzare online allegra or claritin for cat allergies which medicine is better zyrtec or allegra. Proscar 5mg ireland buying generic viagra in canada prices for viagra prescription buy zithromax online in australia xenical orlistat buy uk. Is allegra otc or prescription orlistat buy uk buy proscar ireland is zyrtec or allegra more effective viagra dosage over 100 mg viagra 100 mg 30 tablet. Viagra dosage more than 100 mg allegra or zyrtec for seasonal allergies generic viagra price canada allegra or zyrtec while pregnant viagra in usa prescription. Buy generic topamax online where can i buy orlistat 120mg uk where can i buy topamax online Dutasteride or finasteride for hair loss claritin or allegra for indoor allergies. Purchase topamax online viagra canada without prescription orlistat to buy uk buy proscar online ireland where to buy viagra with prescription. Topamax buy online uk cobra viagra online bestellen buy topamax online cheap which allergy medicine is better allegra or zyrtec buy avodart usa buy proscar in ireland. Viagra 100mg tablet avodart prices us topamax to buy online proscar prescription ireland can you get viagra prescription online. Where can i buy orlistat uk viagra uk non prescription allegra or zyrtec for allergies buy orlistat 120mg uk buy zithromax australia. Gabapentin gel uk topamax buy online orlistat where to buy uk where can i buy orlistat in the uk topamax purchase online dosage of viagra 100mg. Proscar for sale ireland proscar hair loss ireland where can i buy orlistat in uk can you buy topamax online viagra dosage 50 mg vs 100mg veilig online viagra bestellen. Which is better for allergies claritin or allegra is allegra or zyrtec better for allergies zyrtec or allegra for cat allergies. Avodart cost usa cheap topamax online zithromax buy online australia viagra pfizer online bestellen buy topamax online canada allegra or claritin for allergies. Buy orlistat uk cheap is allegra or claritin better for cat allergies claritin or allegra for eye allergies allegra allergy or claritin. Buy topamax online australia dosage for viagra 100mg can i buy orlistat over the counter uk viagra dosage 50 mg or 100mg where to get viagra prescription. Viagra 50mg dosage wo viagra online kaufen can you buy zithromax over the counter in australia viagra 100 mg 10 tablet. Allegra allergy or zyrtec buy non prescription viagra online buy zithromax online australia allegra or zyrtec for eye allergies.

  • Viagra in Fontana
  • Viagra in Sydney
  • Viagra in El paso
  • Viagra in Ill.
  • Viagra in Calif.
  • Viagra in Santa rosa


Furosemide lasix 20 mg po once a day lasix dose neonates buy xenical 120mg hard capsules orlistat usa viagra 400mg xenical orlistat 120mg reviews orlistat 120 mg generico precio. Where can i buy viagra over the counter in the us lasix dosage mims bula do orlistat 120 mg bula orlistat 60mg orlistat 120mg india can you buy viagra over the counter in usa. Orlistat lipiblock 120 mg orlistat 120mg serve para que can i buy viagra over the counter in sydney preo de orlistat 120mg lasix dogs dosage can you buy viagra over the counter australia. Orlistat 120 mg mecanismo de accion lasix for edema dose dosage of viagra 50mg buy womens viagra australia lasix newborn dose viagra 100mg 8 tablet lasix dosage pulmonary edema. Lasix dosage for chf in dogs harga viagra usa 100 mg orlistat 120mg lipiblock lasix pediatric dose iv lasix dose acute chf can you buy cialis in uk. Can you buy generic viagra in australia que es orlistat 120 mg is generic viagra safe from canada orlistat 84stk. 60mg preisvergleich. Viagra 50 mg low dosage where can i buy cheap viagra in australia lasix 10 mg orlistat 60 mg kaufen orlistat hexal 60 mg. Dosage of lasix for horses orlistat 120 mg 84 capsules lasix dose dependent is there generic viagra in canada. Buying clomid online nz buy viagra over the counter in australia lasix dosage for chronic renal failure lasix dose calculation viagra 50 mg 4 tablets. Oral lasix onset of action places to buy viagra over the counter Buy generic maxalt online xenical orlistat 120 mg forum viagra going generic in canada. Zovirax medication used for what orlistat 120 mg 84 lasix pill dosage lasix and potassium dosage can you buy viagra over the counter usa lasix 40 dosage. Buy cheap viagra online australia orlistat 120mg lasix toxic dose orlistat 120 mg uk orlistat 120 mg quanto custa orlistat tabletas de 120 mg where can i buy viagra over the counter in edinburgh. Orlistat 60 dosage orlistat 120 mg india weight loss orlistat 120mg buy viagra over the counter in sydney. Costco alli orlistat 60mg refill pack generic xenical orlistat 120mg orlistat dose in rats can you buy viagra over the counter in uk. Buy viagra over the counter in spain 50 mg viagra dose lasix feline dose orlistat 120 mg para que serve can you buy viagra over the counter in brisbane. Viagra 50mg tablets viagra professional 50 mg low dosage can you buy viagra over the counter in canada dosage of orlistat capsules. Orlistat 80 mg preo can you buy viagra over the counter uk buy viagra over the counter australia can u buy viagra over the counter in ireland. Lasix dosage forms orlistat sandoz 120 mg cena orlistat 120 mg buy online uk alli orlistat 60 mg prospect usa viagra 3000mg. Viagra 120 Pills 50mg $145 - $1.21 Per pill orlistat 120mg amazon lasix 40 mg dose can you buy viagra over the counter in mexico. Orlistate bula 120mg can you buy viagra over the counter in australia can u buy viagra over the counter in australia viagra usa100mg lasix 40 mg dosage. Viagra 50 mg posologia can u buy viagra over the counter in spain orlistat 120 mg precio en colombia.

Finasterid 1mg deutschland | Buy kamagra jelly uk online | Where to buy generic viagra in toronto | Can u buy phenergan over the counter


Bad Königshofen im GrabfeldBad LangensalzaGraftonViernheimWeißenbergSternbergRotenburgTannBad Lippspringe


  1. viagra going generic in canada
  2. when is viagra going generic in canada
  3. is there generic viagra in canada
  4. cost generic viagra canada
  5. is viagra generic available in canada
  6. is viagra generic in canada
  7. generic viagra ship to canada


Buy finasteride online 1mg buy zovirax ointment cheap wellbutrin buying online zovirax 5 cream buy online retin-a tretinoin buy online buy zovirax pills online. Wellbutrin purchase online adalat xl 30 tablets viagra sale in australia tretinoin cream 0.025 buy online viagra in usa where to buy finasteride in the uk. Buy online tretinoin cream best place to buy generic finasteride purchase wellbutrin online price of arimidex tablets. Buy finasteride 1mg online wellbutrin buy online uk viagra sales in australia herbal viagra for sale in ireland finasteride online buy Viagra 360 Pills 50mg $355 - $0.99 Per pill. Adalat tablet dose buy zovirax online uk generic finasteride where to buy finasteride 5mg buy online adalat tablets dosage. Wellbutrin xl 300 mg online finasteride 1mg buy online viagra in den usa rezeptfrei viagra usa asli viagra for sale in new zealand. Buying finasteride in australia tretinoin 0.05 buy online tretinoin cream 05 buy online buy finasteride 1mg online australia. Buy zovirax online Viagra generika rezeptfrei preisvergleich Buy cheap flagyl online buying finasteride online generic viagra in usa wellbutrin sr purchase online wellbutrin cheap online. Tretinoin .05 buy online arimidex tablets steroids adalat 10 mg tablets viagra for sale in brisbane buy zovirax ointment viagra usa over the counter. Wellbutrin sr online pharmacy obagi tretinoin cream 0.1 buy online obagi tretinoin cream buy online buy cheap finasteride 1mg finasteride buy 1mg.

< Finasteride tabletas dosis :: Generics pharmacy price list of medicines >

10 Different starter fish groups for beginners

10 different starter fish groups for a beginner’s community tank

20 most popular fish here

three year old Walstad aquarium

three year old Walstad aquarium

Nearly everyone in the fish keeping hobby starts off with a community tank. These offer the best combination of bright colors and fascinating inter-species behavior, and are easily maintained by beginners if the right fish are chosen from outset.

When it comes to selecting fish for a community tank, it is important to take the experience of the aquarist into consideration. Highly experienced aquarists with years of practical fish keeping knowledge will be able to maintain more exotic combinations of fish than beginners can. If you are just beginning your first community tank, the lists below may help you get on the right path from the start.

It is not just a matter of selecting any fish from a list of community fish one by one. Individually each fish might make a good beginner fish. However, it is when you buy several different beginner fish that problems might arise. So, you must buy beginner fish that will create a community of compatible fish.

Choosing compatible fish

male pearl gourami with red breast

male pearl gourami with red breast

Your choice of fish has to be determined based on their compatibility with one another. This means taking two major factors into account: the behavior of the fish, and the environment in which it will thrive. Two fish that require very different water conditions will never be compatible—you need to make sure that your fish can physically complement one another.

The behavior of your fish is another important element: aggressive fish are generally off-limits for beginners, since any environmental stress will invariably cause the fish to lash out and attack its neighbors. Your first fish need to be peaceful, hardy, and willing to adapt to a wide variety of situations.

An additional consideration to take into account is the part of the aquarium that your fish prefer to inhabit. Ideally, you would like some fish to rest around the bottom of the aquarium, some of them in the middle area, and others around the surface. Selecting your fish based on these criteria will help ensure that they live peacefully with one another. Fish in different zones will mostly keep out of each other’s way.

10 ideal community fish set ups for beginners

fish tank set up

typical aquarium with fish and plants

  • The livebearer tank – Beginners would do well to start off with livebearers such as platies, mollies and swortails. Buy 1 male with 3 females of each type of fish. Avoid guppies that are usually a little delicate because of extensive in-breeding. Also, buy a group of 6 dwarf corydoras to inhabit the tank floor. This aquarium will provide you with a colourful, lively and interesting group of fish that are hardy. As long as you perform reasonable maintenance this beginner tank should be a success.

Essential facts about livebearers

How to buy livebearers

  • The danio starter tank—Schooling fish like danios make an excellent starting point for a community tank. You will have to keep between six to ten of them, but you can then enjoy their excellent coloration and fascinating behavior properly. Zebras danios and pearl danios are the best species to choose from, but other danios make good beginner fish too. To complement the danio school, a smaller school of Corydoras catfish and a couple of kribensis cichlids will offer you a simple and beautiful community tank set up.
  • Watching a large shoal of cardinal tetras is an enchanting experience

    Watching a large shoal of cardinal tetras is enchanting

    The two-school variety tank—If you have a larger tank, between 120 liters and 200 liters in size, you can keep two separate schools of six to ten fish each. Try combining a school of giant danios with another school of gold barbs along with six bottom-feeding Corydoras and one algae-eating bristlenose pleco. Add one male and two female swordtails if you have the room for them.

  • The novice’s nano tank—A small tank , ideal for beginners starting out with a tank between 40 and 80 liters in volume, this tank focuses on small fish: two schools of six zebra danios, small tetras, or white clouds, along with one male swordtail and two female ones, six Corydoras, and a Peckoltia catfish.
  • The Asian Riverbed—If you can install a reasonably powerful current in your 120 to 200 liter aquarium, you can enjoy this South-East Asian biotope easily: 15 zebra danios, 10 tiger barbs, 4 tinfoil barbs, and a single red tail shark. Be sure to add in plenty of sturdy plant species that will thrive without extra carbon dioxide or fertilizers to enjoy this tank at its best.
  • male and female honey gouramis

    male and female honey gouramis

    The Gourami Aquarium—If you have between 120 and 200 liters of volume to fill, you can base your tank on two schools of six gourami fish: one male and three female pearl gouramis and the one male with three female dwarf gouramis. Add a few kribensis to populate the lower range of the tank. Add six corydoras to complete the tank.

  • The Malawi Tank—Malawi cichlids can be great fish for beginners, because they are quite hardy. They are territorial at first but eventually once they establish a pecking order, aggression quietens down. But the beginner must have a very strong filtration system for this aquarium. This combination of fish is ideal for a plant-free tank between 120 liters and 200 liters. Six red zebras, six Labeotropheus trewavasae, and six Pseudotropheus socolofi will go together perfectly. Keeping the tank stocked to the limit will actually help reduce aggression. You can add a Cuckoo catfish or two if necessary.

The perfect Malawi tank

  • The small Amazon tank—With 100 liters of tank volume, you can keep a beautiful Amazon-themed tank. The star of the show will be a single angelfish, supported by six hatchet fish and a school of six bottom-dwelling Corydoras catfish. Be sure to include plenty of driftwood in the tank to give it the proper rainforest feel.
  • The large Amazon tank—While not strictly an Amazon biotope, this stretch of the imagination is a perfectly viable option for a beginning aquarist with 200 liters of volume to fill: eight neon tetras, eight cherry barbs, eight panda corydoras, three Oto fish, four zebra loaches, one pearl gourami and a single bristlenose pleco to round out the bunch.

Amazon biotope aquarium

  • amazon biotope with angels rummy nose and rams

    amazon biotope with angels rummy nose and rams

    The tiny apartment tank—If size is an issue and you don’t have more than 40 liters to work with try this rewarding and simple tank set up: two platys, male and female, along with six neon tetras and six cherry barbs. Small tanks require great care, since changes in water conditions can affect your fish very quickly.

The nano fish tank

With any of these tanks, you should be able to enjoy a peaceful, colorful, and highly rewarding initial foray into the community tank experience. Many of the theme tanks can be easily refitted into a full-scale biotope with minimal adjustments, giving you room to improve later on as well!

 

The 20 most popular fish and how to feed them

The 20 most popular fish and their favorite foods

Suggested beginner fish groups

Fish foods

daphnia swarm

a swarm of daphnia

Fish are just like any other pet when it comes feeding—they need to be fed regularly, and different specimens will assuredly have different tastes and preferences. Your choice of fish food will readily affect the health and wellbeing of your fish, so you want to make sure that you make the correct choice concerning your particular species of fish.

It should be noted that in some cases, certain combinations of fish foods will help encourage breeding. That is normal day to day feeding needs to be enhanced when you need to prepare your fish for breeding. In most cases, live foods such as brine shrimp are best, since their presence gives some fish species a cue that the environment is ripe for breeding. In the list that follows below, you will see breeding options added on where appropriate.

Food options and feeding for the most popular fish.

There are two broad categories when it comes to fish food: processed foods and live foods. Of these two choices, live foods such as brine shrimp and bloodworms are generally superior, but often require cultivation. Processed foods, on the other hand, are inexpensive and easily obtained at any aquarium supply store. Among the processed choices, there are further options, including:

  • Fresh foods
  • Frozen and freeze-dried foods
  • Canned flakes or pellets
  • Sinking Food Tablets

Flake food is generally the most popular of these options, but the list below will show that certain species have much to offer the enterprising aquarist who invests in a supply of specialty foods.

The favorite foods of the 20 most popular freshwater aquarium fish

  • Angelfish—This tall community-friendly fish is not a fussy eater. Angelfish will gladly live off of a variety of commercially available flake foods and freeze-dried options. For the best results, supplement its diet with some fresh bloodworms, brine shrimp, or even leftover vegetables like peas.

    Blue and pink marble plakat style betta

    Blue and pink marble plakat style betta

  • Bettas—These extremely popular fish are easy to take care of. They will accept canned flake and freeze-dried foods, but they do their best with small fresh worms. Specialized Betta foods are widely available at pet stores, and breeding can be encouraged using live foods.
  • Barbs—The barb family of fish consists of numerous species that share, among other attributes, a major appetite for just about anything they can fit in their mouths. Barbs love flake, they love frozen foods, they love worms, and they love your aquarium plants. Make sure your barbs are getting a dose of vegetable fiber so they’ll leave your plants alone.
  • Guppies—Live-bearing fish that are commonly seen in a wide variety of community tanks, guppies have a great appetite for small live foods. They will also eat frozen worms and flakes, and have a particular fondness for variety. Try feeding them the occasional slice of zucchini or other vegetables.
  • dalmation molly male

    pedigree dalmation molly

    Black Molly—These beautiful black fish are useful algae-eaters for your tank. However, they will need to supplement that food source with flake food or blanched vegetables. The black molly feeds at the surface of the tank, so make sure your food floats, or the fish may not find it.

  • Serpae Tetras—These small and very popular fish are known to nip away at their neighbors fins. They are not picky eaters, but extra care should be taken to make sure that their tank mates also get to eat. These fast-moving fish can quickly consume more than their fair share of food, leaving slower fish unfed.
  • Rummynose Tetras—Your red Rummynose tetras will survive on a diet that consists of commercially prepared flake foods without issue. They are perfectly fine with dry and frozen foods, but prefer live brine shrimp, mosquito larvae, and brown worms.
  • Rosy Tetras—The abundantly seen Rosy Tetra prefers a diet that consists of flakes and worms. These fish will eat very small fish if given the chance, so care should be taken if you choose to combine them with juveniles or fry.

Pristella_tetra

  • Black Tetras—Very popular fish for beginners, Tetras are not picky about what they eat, and will even breed on a diet of dry flake food. Your black tetras will be perfectly happy with anything even remotely resembling fish food. Give them a good quality flake-and-vegetable diet to ensure their best health.
  • Blue Gourami—This species of fish, like most of its Gourami cousins, will exhibit its best coloring and behavior when given a diet of small live foods with leftover vegetable matter such as zucchini or peas. They will eat flake and freeze-dried foods, as well, but higher quality options are recommended.
  • Kribensis—These undemanding fish are perfect for beginners. They are tolerant of most water conditions and food sources. They will eat nearly anything, but offer the best results when fed a combination of flake food and frozen bloodworms or brine shrimp. Being middle to bottom feeders, you can try sinking pellets.
  • Discus—These cichlids are peaceful, tall fish that are very popular for larger community tanks. They will accept flake food, but should be given more in order to encourage the best health: frozen or live worms, shrimp meat, and Spirulina to enhance their coloration. Discus fish will happily eat chopped up beef heart.
  • oscar2

    Oscars are popular but can grow very large and eat a lot of meaty foods

    Oscars—The oscar is an intelligent fish that will learn to recognize its owner. It is also a characteristically aggressive fish, and it will eat its tank mates if given the opportunity. Naturally, this fish does best with a meat-based diet. Live worms are ideal, but frozen ones are acceptable as well. Do not feed your oscar guppies or other fish.

  • Catfish—Corydoras and related species of catfish are bottom-dwellers that will gladly eat any food that falls to the bottom of your tank. In order to make sure that enough food reaches your catfish, purchase some sinking tablets. Corydoras will only breed if worms, with blackworms being a particular favorite.
  • Zebra danios—This very popular fish prefers a diet consisting of a wide variety of small live food choices: bloodworms, brine shrimp, Tubifex worms, and insect larvae are favorites. They will also accept frozen and flake foods, but you should take care to supplement the diet of this fish with romaine lettuce or other green leafy vegetables.
  • Frontosa cichlids—Possibly the most popular fish from Lake Tanganyika, the frontosa cichlid likes meat. Some specimens will ignore flake food, requiring you to provide a steady, varied diet of krill, worms, or daphnia. This fish is one of the few that can be trained to eat directly out your hand.
  • Jack Dempseys—These aggressive fish are popular pets since, like Oscars, they will identify and develop a relationship with their owner. They are not picky eaters, and will gladly thrive off of a diet of flake foods or just about anything else.
  • white cloud mountain minnow pair

    white cloud mountain minnow male and female

    White Cloud—This popular beginner’s species is very happy to live on a diet of canned flake foods. Supplementing that diet with live foods such as brine shrimp or even frozen bloodworms can help: extra nutritional options like these will intensify its colors.

  • Platies—The live-bearing platy comes in an enormous variety of colors, sizes, and finnage types. These community-friendly fish will are content with commercially-prepared flake food, but will thrive if given an extra boost of vegetable matter in their diet. With a vegetable-heavy diet and some aquarium plants, they will readily breed.
  • Goldfish—Last, but not least, the ever-popular goldfish is happiest when presented with live worms, but will feel perfectly fine when provided with flake and sinking pellet foods. The key with goldfish is recognizing that they look for food either at the surface of the tank or at the bottom. Choose a food that sinks or floats to make feeding easy.

How to stop your aquarium from getting dirty

How Do I Keep My Fish Tank From Getting Dirty?

Related articles

Learn how to clean a fish tank.

Keep your water clear.
 
Maintain a clean aquarium long term

How to keep your aquarium clean?

various striated rocks and pebbles on gravel

various striated rocks and pebbles on gravel

Fish-keeping is enjoyable and rewarding for people of all ages. However, as with all the other pets, fish need to be cared for with a healthy environment. From harmful chemicals, various toxins to algae, and calcium deposits, they contribute to a dirty and unhealthy aquarium for fish. Thus, a regularly cleaned water tank and proper filtration system is a must to keep the fish and aquarium system healthy as well as beautiful.

Basic maintenance of a tank begins with filtering the water and removing various toxins from it at frequent intervals. As the task to scrape muck and slime from the tank, change water frequently and take other necessary actions requires time, any fish keepers find it to be one of the hardest things to do. But with the right techniques, looking after the aquarium would be a breeze for you.

The 5 essential ways to keep aquarium water clean and healthy for your fish:

Clean and clear aquarium water should be all aquarists goal

Clean and clear aquarium water should be all aquarists goal

Filtration Systems: As an aquarium is a living biological system, it produces several toxins that must be removed from the tank. A proper filtration system can help in removing the toxins while housing the majority of beneficial bacteria and maintaining a happy and healthy fish aquarium. Thus, having the right filter with enough power, is a must to ensure regular cleaning of the water and keep your aquarium running properly.
 
From filtering out particles from water, collecting debris and bacteria, filtration systems are a must, without which it would be hard work to keep tropical fish as a pet. However, as the market is full of a variety of aquarium filtration system pumps that remove toxins and impurities in water, it has become a daunting task to choose the most suitable filter. It is a must to buy a filtration system that utilize mechanical, biological and chemical filtration processes.

Regular Siphoning: As with time, fish waste, uneaten food, plant waste, and other debris build up on the substrate, rocks, plants, etc., a siphon helps in removing the dirt from the gravel easily. Make sure to stir the siphon into the gravel to release trapped dirt. The gravel will not be sucked up. It also comes in handy to make routine water changes and ensure that the water is fresh for your fish.

Careful Feeding Regime: Fish-keepers are often confused about the feeding regime that must be followed and the most common mistakes they make is that they feed the fish too much and too often. And when there is uneaten food in water, it rots causing pollution. Therefore, you have to ensure that you do not overfeed your fish or the water quality will suffer as the uneaten food rots and creates toxic waste. You must feed fish in small amounts of food, once or twice a day. The fish must consume all the food you feed within a few minutes. As long as they eat it all within a short time then you should be fine.

An aquarium blighted by algae

An aquarium blighted by algae is an eyesore

Cleaning and Controlling Algae: Algae grows in a healthy water tank and once it begins to grow, it does so very rapidly and there is no way to prevent it or remove it completely. However, you can control it with the right techniques. It is a good practice to keep a check the water quality and reduce nitrate, phosphate and iron levels, by adding water without these chemicals, as these nutrients are a source of algae. If any algae has grown on the glass of your water tank, you can use a magnetic algae scraper to get rid of it.
One of the most effective ways to remove phosphate and other fertilising chemicals is by using a Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit or tap water filter. But do not remove all the minerals from your water because aquarium plants and fish need trace elements. Also, if your aquarium is getting too much light, you can decrease the amount of light by either reducing the amount of time for your lighting is used or exchanging the bulbs for a lower wattage.

Partial Water Changes: Regular water changes keep your fish happy and healthy. So, it is recommended to change 10 to 20 per cent of water once a week, depending on the number and type of fish, feeding schedule, volume of water and filtration system. You can change water at the same time that you vacuum the gravel, which can be done by using siphon gravel cleaner with a hose attached.

Proper aquarium maintenance will keep your water tank healthy. With the right techniques to change water and clean the tank, you should never need to completely empty the water.
Depending on the maintenance requirement of your tank, you can take some steps to clean it daily and on a weekly basis. Listed below are those steps:

Daily aquarium cleaning tasks

  • Just like any other pet, fish need to be looked after for on a daily basis.
  • It is essential to feed them the right quantity of food, ensuring they the food is consumed immediately.
  • You must also ensure that the filter, lights and heater are working properly.
  • Take a few minutes every day to observe if the fish are swimming normally. Also, look at their skin and take note of sign of disease, if any.
  • Check the water and ensure that it does not have a foul odor, is clean and nothing is floating around.

Weekly aquarium cleaning tasks

Besides keeping an eye on fish and water tank at regular intervals, there are certain steps that must be taken on a weekly basis to make sure that the water tank is clean and healthy for the fish.

  • Remove Dead Leaves: Your fish tank may be a home to a number of plants. Thus, it is your responsibility to remove any dead leaves from it and trim excess growth of the plants, ensuring that the water tank is clean for your fish.
  • Clean Off Algae: You can use a algae scraper or magnet to remove algae from the sides of the aquarium.
  • Clean Aquarium Glass: Using a clean cloth and water spray, remove dirt from the water tank’s front and side glass. No soap or chemicals!
  • Water Replacement: Every week, siphon nearly 10 to 20 per cent of water by using a siphon hose and replace with dechlorinated water.

You should set up a consistent maintenance schedule every week to ensure that the aquarium stays clean and healthy for your fish to live in!

You can now sit back and enjoy your fish without being distracted by a dirty tank!

Why do my fish keep dying?

Why do my fish keep dying?

Mistakes beginner fishkeepers make

two dead goldfish neglected in an aquarium

two dead goldfish neglected in an aquarium

There can be several reasons for the death of your fish; however for beginners the main reason is new tank syndrome. This is a situation where you have bought new fish and placed them in a newly set up aquarium. Your fish start dying and you are unable to explain the cause. This syndrome is usually experienced by new fish owners who have yet to master keeping fish safe, healthy and alive. Here are some things that you should look out for and avoid to explain and prevent new tank deaths

  • Uncycled aquarium & filter
  • Water chemistry problems
  • Diseases
  • Poor diet and overfeeding
  • Over population
  • Wrong type of fish
  • Buying sick fish

Uncycled aquarium & filter

dead catfish on the tank floor

dead catfish on the tank floor


 
Most fish owners will be buying their new pets along with new equipment, such as an aquarium and a filter. They will fill the aquarium with water and then put in the fish and they will think that the work is done. This is a common error by most new fish owners. Even before you introduce your desired fish population, you need to create a nitrifying bacteria bed in your aquarium and filter.

Take note that the same way human bodies have good bacteria that can protect them from harm, so does the aquarium. An aquarium and especially the filter must have good bacteria that can protect them from risks to their health. The bacteria work by neutralizing or converting toxins that are produced by the fish’s droppings and urine such as ammonia and nitrites.

Without good bacteria, these toxins build up in the aquarium. When they reach dangerous levels, the fish will absorb these toxins and cause them to become ill. Since it is often difficult to detect if a fish is sick, new fish owners will only discover it when it is too late and the fish are dead or about to die.

It takes time for the healthy bacteria in the filter to build up, between 4-6 weeks before a healthy population of bacteria develops in the filter capable of fully removing fish waste products. So, what do you do in the mean time? You have to do daily partial water changes to dilute these toxins. Perhaps, remove 5% of the water and top up with (chlorine free) fresh water.

dead fish on the tank floor that needs removing asap

dead fish on the tank floor that needs removing asap

This explains a common pattern to newly bought fish that will be fine for up to a week or longer. Then something seems to change and the fish start getting ill. Finally they start to die. And, the few fish that survive start to get better and if all is well the survivors live a long time.

This is all explained by the cycling of the filter and the fish waste product. When the fish first enter a new aquarium with fresh water there is no waste matter in the water. As the fish start to poop and urinate in the water this waste starts to build up. This poisons the fish. Slowly the bacteria in the filter build up and digest this waste cleaning the water, but this takes weeks to establish.

Water chemistry problems

Fish require a delicate balance in the chemicals in the water. Clear water does not necessarily mean an ideal environment for the fish. Ammonia, nitrites and nitrates are some of the chemicals, which when uncontrolled, can cause significant harm to your fish that will eventually lead to death. These toxins are from the waste your fish produce. These are harmful toxins that should be neutralized or kept at a minimum during the course of your taking care of the fish.

Cycling explained in full here

When looking after fish as pets you are not necessarily taking care of the actual fish themselves but rather of the water quality instead. Measuring devices and kits are available to keep a check on the various chemical parameters of the water of your fish tank. You must also have keen observation, noting changes such as the tinge of the water, any discoloration of the gravel in the aquarium or the behaviour of your fish. However, as a beginner, if you rely solely on observation, the toxic levels will already be too high to before you understand that something is wrong. At this point any chance for survival of your fish is slim.

Tap water usually contains chlorine which is lethal to your fish. To remove it leave the water standing for 1-2 days before adding to your aquarium. Alternatively, use dechlorinating medication that removes chlorine immediately from tap water.
Check the ph and hardness. Ph between 6.6 – 7.6 is okay for most fish. Test the hardness level. A moderate level of hardness is ideal for most beginner fish.
Diseases

Don’t buy sick fish! Beginners often buy fish that have illnesses from the pet shop. This is easier said than done. Check the pet shop aquarium if there are any sick or dead fish in there. Check if there are any spots on the fish or markings or fungus like patches. Make sure the fish are active and swim towards food. Don’t buy fish that are sulking or have clamped fins (ie fins held close to the body). Check the fish has bright colouration.

Another cause for fish death is because of disease. As the water quality becomes poorer from elevated levels of toxins, the fish health also becomes poorer with it. When the fish become weaker, they are more vulnerable to disease. A healthy fish will normally be able to resist these illnesses but a weakened fish will succumb to them.

Some examples of these diseases are bacterial infections, fungal infections, internal parasites in the fish’s body, dropsy and other opportunistic diseases. Most new fish owners will attempt to cure these diseases by adding antibiotics, anti-parasitic or anti-bacterial medicine into the water. However, without treating the underlying cause of the disease, which is the toxicity from waste matter, there will still be fatalities, despite the medication. Experienced fish owners are able to nurse a fish back to health where a beginner may or may not succeed.

Poor diet and overfeeding

Most new owners will enjoy feeding their fish. Who wouldn’t enjoy seeing their fish swim towards the food and follow the trail wherever you sprinkle the food? It is also fun to see some fish diving towards a food pellet that sinks towards the bottom of the aquarium. Ironically, feeding your fish or rather overfeeding is also one of the main causes of fish death.

Fish should be fed once a or twice day, with the fish eating everything within 5 minutes. But most new owners will feed their fish every chance they get. On top of this over feeding, other members of the family may also be feeding the fish on their own without the owner’s knowledge. Fish food that is uneaten, such as food left floating on the surface of the water or sitting on the aquarium bed will rot and pollute your aquarium, leading to the same problems as fish waste. Rotting food in the aquarium is the second biggest cause of fish deaths after new tank syndrome.

Over population

Another cause of death for fish is the population itself. Despite the care you make on making a balance in the water chemistry, proper feeding schedule and best equipment you can provide, your fish may still die because there are just too many fish in too small an aquarium. But problems may also arise if you have the wrong combination of fish species.

There isn’t a strict rule on the ideal number of fish for a certain size of aquarium. More experienced fish owners recommend a ratio of 1 inch of fish for every 1 gallon of water. Take note that the 1 inch is meant to be measured on each fish’s eventual adult size. The more fish there are, the greater the chance for oxygen deficiency, self pollution and diseases to spread.

The wrong combination of fish can also lead to stress and deaths. If you put together an aggressive fish with a more passive or smaller fish, the passive fish may be bullied. In their natural environment, a passive fish would be able to escape the aggressive fish, but in an aquarium they have no chance for escape. The constant stress will cause death.

Wrong type of fish

Finally, the beginner may have bought a difficult to care for species of fish. Difficult fish may need special water requirements, special dietary needs or some other type of specialised care. You must always ask the pet shop owner if the fish you are buying are beginner community fish to avoid such problems. Only buy more difficult fish when you have more experience.

You should buy popular starter fish such as gold fish, tetras, platies, swordtails and bettas. These are colorful, active and most importantly easy to care for. Avoid buying difficult fish such as saltwater fish.

Recommended compatible fish groups here

Conclusion

Once you have mastered the two main causes of fish death which is new tank syndrome and rotting uneaten food in the aquarium you will have a good chance of keeping your fish alive long term. And, if you follow all the above advice you should hardly ever see a fish death in your tanks. If you follow all this advice, not only will your fish stop dying but you will see your fish in full glowing health.

How to make your own fish food

How to make your own fish food

prawns make a good component for diy fish foods

prawns make a good component for diy fish foods

While many fish are happy enough if you give them excellent quality water, a well-stocked aquarium to live in, and commercially available dried flake food, many aquarists enjoy going the extra mile and preparing their own fish food from scratch, or supplementing the diet of their fish with homemade meals. This option allows careful aquarists to enjoy a number of benefits simply not possible with commercial foods.

Although it may seem like hard work, you can make a lot in one go. A large batch can keep your fish going for a long time. Freezing what you are not using right away can keep it fresh a long time.

Advantages to preparing home made fish food

• Fresh Ingredients—By leaving out the manufacturing process, storage and distribution of commercial fish food, you ensure that your fish food is much fresher and healthier than commercially available dry flake alternatives.

. Better ingredients – because you don’t have the same economic constraint a manufacturer has, you can utilise the best ingredients rather than using cheaper alternatives.

• Lower Costs—If you are clever with your use of household food waste, you can use a wide variety of commonly thrown away food scraps to feed your fish. Even if you don’t totally recycle your foods, you can still end up enjoying considerable savings.

• Nutrient Control—Since you are controlling the foods your fish eats, you can determine the specifics of its diet. For example, weak fish can be fed home made preparations that are higher in protein, and sick fish can be given important boosts of vitamins by using supplements.

The combination of fresher ingredients and strictly controlled nutrients can help you ensure that your fish enjoy happier, healthier lives. This is usually the primary reason why aquarists go for home made fish food recipes.

Types of foods that your fish will eat

spinach is an excellent green ingredient for fish food

spinach is an excellent green ingredient for fish food

Unlike cultivating live food such as brine shrimp or daphnia, home made fish foods are generally easily put together from various common household leftovers. And you only have to do it once in bulk, freeze the product and use it as needed. You will have to begin collecting leftovers that fish can eat and combining them into nutritious meals for your fish. Your fish will gladly eat many combinations of meats and vegetables if they are properly prepared using a food processor or blender.

Your fish, of course will happily eat just about any seafood, especially shrimp, but they will also happily devour most meat leftovers as well including chicken and beef. Take care to remove any bones before processing. A very popular option that many home made fish food enthusiasts take is discarding livers, hearts, and other organs in the food processor with root vegetables such as carrots or zucchini.

Most of the healthiest recipes centre their nutritive offerings around a combination of leftover meats and vegetables including peas and spinach. The basic combination of meat and vegetables forms the base of your recipe. The vegetables need to be steamed soft and then blended with the cooked meat to make a healthy paste. Also the gelatin or agar must be prepared separately by adding a little liquid and boiling before adding to the ingredient paste to create something that will bind together without crumbling. Then it can be conveniently frozen in small separate blocks and fed to your fish as needed.

Examples of healthy ingredients that can be used in your home made fish food are:

  • beef heart is a good food for meat eating fish

    beef heart is a good food for meat eating fish

    fresh prawns or fresh fish

  • Discarded meats and organs (but take care to remove any fat)
  • Root vegetables like carrots and broccoli
  • lettuce or spinach
  • Ground staples such as corn and flour
  • Most fruits in small quantities
  • Spirulina (fresh if you can find it, but powedered spirulina is acceptable)
  • Raw chicken eggs

This allows for some very creative possibilities, but there are some ingredients to steer clear of as well: Things to avoid include nuts, saturated fats, and just about anything processed.

Tweaking your fish food recipe

Once you begin collecting your leftovers, you can conveniently make your own brand of fish food from a wide variety of ingredients and then begin adding health boosters for your fish. For example, fish will gladly eat eggs, and the protein boost can be very helpful when you want to encourage growth, so cracking a few eggs into your fish food paste can be an excellent idea. This is especially true for juvenile fish.

agar makes an excellent food binder to keep the fish food from disintegrating

agar makes an excellent food binder to keep the fish food from disintegrating

Another useful tip that can make your life easier is the use of unsweetened gelatin powder in your fish food paste—this powder will help give your food the consistency it needs so that it doesn’t crumble before your fish can eat it. You are also encouraged to add vitamins and other useful ingredients such as lecithin. Do your research on the vitamin and mineral needs of your fish before deciding which supplement to add. Simply add the powder to the food processor with all of the other ingredients to enjoy its benefits.

You will want to spend some time getting your fish accustomed to your new specialised cooking skills by gauging their reactions to your experiments. Fish, just like people, will have differing tastes and you may find that yours prefer certain foods over others. By paying attention to their appetite, you can begin to formulate an exact recipe that fits their needs exactly.

Packaging and freezing your fish food portions

Once you have settled on a combination of ingredients and have successfully processed them into a fine paste, you are ready to package individual portions into small bags and freeze them. It is recommended to pack just enough food into a single serving for your fish to consume everything in one sitting. Each frozen pellet of food will easily dissolve in your tank, providing great health and nutrition for your fish. Remember to thoroughly defrost the fish food before feeding your fish.

Home made fish food can be a great way to give your fish a special treat, or offer a complete replacement for commercial fish foods. Enjoy watching the obvious pleasure of your fish as they eat your lovingly crafted foods.

Example recipes

Recipe 1 for omnivorous fish

  • 1kg fresh shrimp
  • 1/4 kg fresh fish
  • 1/2kg fresh or frozen peas
  • 1/2 kg spinach
  • 1/2 kg fresh carrots
  • 1 medium zucchini
  • 200g spirulina powder
  • 6x 1 a day multivitamin tablets
  • 120g gelatin powder or agar for binding everything together

Recipe 2 for carnivorous fish

  • 1kg fresh shrimp
  • 1/2kg fresh fish
  • 1/2kg beef heart
  • 200g spirulina powder
  • 6×1 a day multivitamin tablets
  • 120g gelatin powder or agar for binding everything together

Recipe 3 for vegetarian fish

  • 1/4 kg fresh shrimp
  • 1/4 kg lettuce
  • 1/2 kg fresh carrots
  • 1kg spinach
  • 2 medium zucchini
  • 1 apple
  • 1 orange or lemon
  • 400g spirulina powder
  • 6×1 a day multivitamin tablets
  • 120g gelatin powder or agar for binding everything together

Selective breeding and wild caught fish

A guide to selective breeding and wild-caught fish

Breeding pedigree livebearers

Breeding fancy goldfish

Wild caught Malawi fish - demasoni showing wild colours

Wild caught Malawi fish – demasoni showing wild colours

While you may have already enjoyed some success breeding some species of fish, there is an additional level of skill necessary to ensure that the specimens you breed are of the highest quality. In order to maximise the health of your fish, you must be aware of how to use reproductive biology to your advantage.

Once you understand the basics of breeding, you can begin selectively breeding fish with certain characteristics. Doing this successfully, however, requires some understanding of the genetic makeup of your fish, and the manner in which they will pass on desirable characteristics.

These characteristics can take any number of forms, from specific variations in colouration such as seen in many species of betta splendens or fin variations such as those commonly bred out of goldfish. Different colours, sizes, body shapes and even behavioural attributes can be bred in subsequent generations of your fish, but doing so requires paying attention to your fish pedigree.

Fish domestication designations or generations removed from the wild

Brilliantly coloured wild caught peacock - walteri

Brilliantly coloured wild caught peacock – walteri

Most novice aquarists are not aware of the fact that domesication designations for fish exist. These helpful little tags are often added onto the end of the description used to identify the fish:

  • WC, wild, or F0 – The most evident of the tags, this indicates a fish that was caught from the wild
  • F1 – First generation. This is a fish whose parents were both wild-caught fish
  • F2 – Second generation. This indicates that both parents of the fish in question were F1 fish
  • F3 – third generation and onwards are considered domesticated or tank bred fish

There are some important differences to consider between these options. First, wild fish are generally the most expensive specimens due to the increased costs of catching, importing and transporting them to your tank. However, they generally enjoy the most successful genetic makeup and, if gifted with a special characteristic that you want to breed, often represent the best chance of passing it on to their offspring. These fish are the most vibrant, naturally colourful and hardy specimens found in an aquarium. But they may be harder to keep in an aquarium because they are adapted to a life in the wild.

F1 and F2 fish are also valuable from a genetic point of view, although slightly less so, since the reduced genetic diversity of an aquarium tank will cause the genetic line to gradually degrade over later generations. Most breeders do not bother identifying fish that are past F2, and it is rare to see any fish advertised as such. As opposed to wild caught fish these specimens show a degree of domestication and will be easier to care for in an aquarium.

The longer a bloodline of fish spends in captivity, the more likely it is to fall victim to genetic defects or just a lack of genetic vitality. This is caused by inbreeding of related fish. Some of this may be relatively harmless, but many will lead to greater complications over time. For this reason, it is important to maintain genetic diversity when breeding in order to keep your fish and their offspring healthy. This can be achieved by keeping careful note of the ancestry of your fish to avoid closely related specimens breeding with each other.

Selective breeding of fish and genetic diversity

red green and black butterfly betta with dragon scales and halfmoon tail

red green and black butterfly betta with dragon scales and halfmoon tail

The most subtle skill in selective fish breeding is maintaining the appropriate balance between the genetic traits that you wish to pass on and the undesirable ones that will make your fish weak and susceptible to illness.

The importance of this balance is readily apparent in most fish species: A mass-produced specimen that has been grown on a fish farm with limited genetic diversity will be less vigorous and have duller colouration than a freshly-caught wild fish of the same species. In order to guarantee the best results for your selective breeding attempt, you will need to carefully select your fish and their mates. It is possible to reinvigorate a breeding group of fish with the introduction of 1 or a few wild caught specimens.

In the case of highly developed forms such as guppies that are markedly different in form and colour than wild specimens, the process is a lot more protracted. Breeding a wild caught specimen with a highly developed fish will most certainly invigorate the line with strong and healthy youngsters. But the likelihood of obtaining youngsters that resemble the developed form is almost zero. It will take a lot of breeding back to the original pedigree to regain the original developed form while maintaining some of the new found vigour in the strain.

There are two ways that you can improve the pedigree of fish

• Line breeding—The process of line breeding involves keeping the genetic blood line of your fish within the family in order to bring out the desired characteristic more. It is also often called inbreeding, and is the most successful way to ensure that a desirable physical attribute gets passed on.

• Outbreeding—This is the breeding of a fish with the characteristic you are encouraging to an unrelated fish from an entirely separate bloodline. This can be an important step towards ensuring the health of your fish after several generations of line breeding by ensuring that genetic diversity remains high and your fish are born healthy. One thing that you have to remember is that some feature of pedigree is carried by the male and others by the female. So when outbreeding you will need to outbreed both males and females otherwise important traits may be lost.

Advanced aquarists will often use a technique called parallel line breeding, in which several different bloodlines all featuring the desired characteristics will be bred and raised in parallel. After every 3-4 generations, they will be mixed with one another, offering the benefits of outbreeding with a vastly lower chance of losing their special line bred quality in the process.

A term often used by selective fish breeders is hybrid vigour, which is used to describe the better growth and survival rate of an outbred specimen than those of the inbred parents. Just like any other species, genetic diversity is the key to success, and with the right balance you should be able to raise healthy fish with your desired characteristics.

Choosing between wild-caught fish and later generations

Wild caught active malawi gar showing full colour

Wild caught active malawi gar showing full colour

If you would like to enjoy the greatest chance of success with your selective breeding operation, it is highly recommended that you start with wild-caught fish. This is not always possible, such as in the case of Fancy Goldfish, which do not exist in the wild at all, and many other common species as well, but if you can get wild specimens, you ensure the greatest genetic starting point.

Wild fish will often have the best colouration available for a specific species and produce the healthiest offspring. If you are able to get a hold of two wild-caught fish, you can begin breeding and sell your F1 fish for a reasonable price. This is especially true if you have already marked the beginning of a desirable trait through the union, which you can subsequently line breed for greater emphasis if you choose.

If wild-caught fish are unavailable, you can still gain the benefits of genetic diversity through purchasing two F1 fish from separate sources, as well. However, you will have to mark their offspring as F2 fish, which will diminish your rate of return if you are breeding specifically for profit.

In many domestic species of tropical fish that have been tank bred over many generations, wild fish are just not available either because the cost is prohibited, they may be a protected species, or they may have become almost extinct in the wild. In this case, some aquarists try to recreate the original form and colouration of the wild caught ancestor. They do this by selective breeding, but not to produce a fancy form or colour but to try and get back the original wild form. The wild form is usually stronger, has better finnage and better colouration than the mass produced specimens usually available. This is achievable, but it will not result in fish with the same vigour as wild specimens nor will it create fish with a diversified genetic make up.

A final comment about wild-caught fish should be made: Not all vendors get their fish from sustainable sources, and there are even those willing to sell tank-raised fish as wild-caught ones in order to make a quick buck hoping the average aquarist will not know the difference. Buy your fish from an enthusiast or a trusted vendor that runs a long term operation and your breeding program will benefit as a result.

 

Fungus – the ever present danger to fish and eggs

Fungus – the ever present danger – to fish and eggs

This golden julie from lake tanganyika has fungus

This golden julie from lake tanganyika has fungus

There are many species of aquatic fungus but by far the most common two are saprolegnia and achlya.

Symptoms of fungal attack

Fungus occurs as white, grey and sometimes brown fluffy growths on the skin or fins of fish or on developing eggs from a spawning.

Saltwater fish actually suffer less, than freshwater fish, from fungus because of the salt in a marine environment. However, brackish water fish, even mollies, when kept in insufficiently salty water are the most prone to fungal attacks.

Fungus often starts as a small tuft, and usually spreads when not treated and can kill a fish if the fungus penetrates the internals of the fish. Fish eggs if not treated or infected eggs are not removed can cause all nearby eggs to be infected and killed.

What causes fungus to develop

Fungus and fungal spores thrive in damp environments with decaying organic matter and an aquarium is full of water so is ripe for fungal outbreaks. Fungus sprouts where there is decaying organic matter, dead fish, or unfertilised or dead fish eggs. When fungus grows it releases millions of spores into the water which will quickly infect any fish that has a break in its protective mucous which may occur after rough handling or an attack from another fish or bumping into aquarium rocks.

Parasitic diseases such as ich, body ulcers and infections will damage the protective mucous and allow entry of fungal spores, compounding the fish’s problems.
When fish are kept in poor quality water conditions with water that is full of bacteria, nitrites, ammonia and excessive fish waste then they are much more likely to get infected by fungus.

Fungus treatment for fish eggs

Several eggs from this spawn are starting to get infected

Several eggs from this spawn are starting to get infected

With fish eggs any unfertilised eggs or dead eggs will quickly get infected with fungus. If that egg is not quickly removed then the fungus will spread and infect otherwise healthy eggs. All adjacent eggs may be killed.

Prevention of egg infection by fungus is achieved by adding methylene blue to the water immediately after the eggs have been spawned. Be careful not to overdose because eggs may suffer developmental problems. Also remove any off-white eggs with a pipette before they become heavily infected.

Cichlids actually do a good job in removing dead and unfertilised eggs and keeping the eggs free from dirt as part of their parental care.

Fungus treatment for fish

Treat as soon as possible. use an aquatic antifungal remedy from your local aquarium shop. Place any heavily infected fish in a quarantine tank and treat the fish there. In the main aquarium a dose of salt added to the water should heal slightly infected fish and help to kill of most spores present.

Prevention is better than cure and this is a mostly preventable illness. Remedy the environment of the aquarium that led to the original outbreak. If it was an accident such as a dead fish then a salt dose to the aquarium should be sufficient.

However, if the cause was rotten food then you must keep up good feeding practices of not feeding more than the fish will eat. Observe all the food you place into the aquarium and remove any uneaten food with a siphon. When your aquarium has a nitrite or an ammonia spike then fish will go off their food. If you feed at this time then you will surely cause a disaster.

Make sure your filter is fully cycled. Make sure that the water you add to the aquarium has the chlorine removed before adding. Also, siphon through and disturb the gravel to remove any build up of fish waste. And make sure your filter has not become clogged. If the filter is clogged then squeeze out the excess dirt from the sponge into a bucket of aquarium water.

And finally, keep up good maintenance practices. Then you should never have a problem with fungus again.

 

The danger and treatment of anchor worms

Description and treatment of anchor worms

Isolated anchor worm. Notice the anchor attachor.

Isolated anchor worm. Notice the anchor attachor.

Anchor worms are so called because it has an organ that looks like a ship’s anchor which it uses to attach itself to the body of a fish. Scientists call anchor worms Lernea. This is a parasite that is visible to the naked eye. What you will see is long straight worm like lines attached all over a fish’s body. The end of the “lines” forks into two parts. These are actually  the egg pouches of a female anchor worm. There are male and female anchor worms but the male anchor worms die after mating so you will mostly see the females.

The harm caused by anchor worms

Anchor worms don’t just attach themselves to the body of the fish but actually embed the “anchor” deep into the flesh, muscles and even as deep as internal organs. Where the anchor worm penetrates the skin a swollen red ulcer will develop. This sore usually leads to secondary fungal or bacterial infections. The anchor worm drains the fish by feeding off its blood.

Life cycle of anchor worms

The female anchor worm will release her eggs into the water when they are about to hatch into free swimming larvae. These larvae will swim about for up to a week looking for a fish to attach itself to. If they don’t attach themselves in this time they will die off.

The larvae will go through a juvenile stage and an adult stage. At the adult stage they will mate, with the males dying off, leaving behind the females with her eggs. The females stay attached waiting for her eggs to mature.

Treatment of anchor worms

Removing anchor worms from fish can be tricky

Removing anchor worms from fish can be tricky

To treat anchor worms successfully, you need a two pronged approach. One part involves taking each infected fish out of the aquarium, one by one to remove the anchor worms. Use tweezers and grab the anchor worm near to the attachment point. Grab tightly and pull it out quickly before the worm has a chance to react. Dab the sore on the fish with an aquatic antiseptic. The second part of the treatment involves adding a chemical treatment to the water to kill off any free swimming larvae in the water. Use an organophosphorous insecticide such as metriphonate.

After one week repeat the treatment. Remove any new anchor worms that have attached and treat the water again in case there are any new free swimming larvae.

Luckily anchor worms are quite rare and when it does occur they are easily spotted. Infection usually comes from newly introduced fish or from birds that bring it to ponds.

 

Setting up an aquarium aquaponics system

A guide to setting your own aquarium aquaponics system

Complete aquaponics aquarium set up

Complete aquaponics aquarium set up

Intrepid aquarists that want to do something special with their tanks will be glad to know that turning an aquarium into a small-scale aquaponics system is not quite as hard as it looks. It may seem complicated, but the underlying science of the matter is stuff that any aquarist should already be comfortable with: the nitrogen cycle, the symbiotic relationship between fish and plants, and the health benefits they offer one another.

If you have kept a planted aquarium before, you already know that the nutrient-rich water of the tank is perfect for plant growth. Aquaponics is just a system by which you can maximise that growth and raise some terrestrial plants while you’re at it. A successful mini aquaponics system can provide you with delicious fresh vegetables, herbs, and spices while giving your fish excellent quality water.

Making your aquaponics system self-sufficient

There are several different ways to construct an aquaponics system, but this article will focus on ways to make it as self-sufficient as possible. Self-sufficiency will cut down on maintenance, but may also deliver smaller yields in return. If you would like to grow large quantities of vegetables, you will need to invest in a more robust set up.

The system described below is a perfectly suitable beginning aquaponics setup that focuses on minimising the need for strict maintenance. If you would like to improve it once you get it up and running, you can invest more time and effort into producing larger yields.

An aquaponics syste has all the hallmarks of a Walstad aquarium. With the closed ecosystem and natural substrate of the growbed. The fish providing nutrient manure for the plants and the plants filtering out toxic waste products from the fish, ie nitrogen recycling. However, where the system differs is that there is a nutrient export. The plants when they get harvested do not recycle back into the system. In the medium to long term there will be a deficiency of minerals that the plants are taking from the water. You will have to occasionally replenish these nutrients.

What you need to build your aquaponics system

  • components of aquarium aquaponics system

    Diagram of basic components of aquarium aquaponics system

    Your aquarium tank, of course

  • A gravel substrate, 1 kg for every 20 litres of water in the tank
  • A small circulation water pump
  • 1 metre length of plastic tubing, that will fit on the outlet of your pump
  • An air stone
  • An air pump matched to your tank’s size + (optional sponge filter)
  • Another 1 metre length of plastic tubing, sized for the air pump outlet
  • A growing medium, pea gravel, perlite, and peat moss work well
  • A plastic grow bed, ideally the same size as your tank and sitting on top of it with a depth of 7 – 20 cm
  • actinic lights for your plants
  • Ordinary aquarium lighting for your fish
  • A pH testing kit
  • A drill
  • A heater for the fish
  • And some fish

How to setup your aquaponics system

One thing you must bear in mind is the height and weight of the whole system when it is all put together. The height will be the height of the aquarium plus the height of the grow bed plus the height of the lighting system above the grow bed. So either obtain a shallow aquarium of make sure there is plenty of room above the aquarium for access.

The first thing you will need to do thoroughly wash your gravel substrate and line it along the bottom of your tank. Then drill tiny holes (3–5 mm) into the bottom of your grow bed with an even distribution, every 5 cm or so. This will let the water drain into the aquarium. Drill a larger (10–12 mm) hole into one of the corners of the bed so that the water pump tubing can pass through.

Now you can place the water pump inside the tank and cap the top with your grow bed. Insert the water pump tubing through the hole you made in the grow bed—leave a little bit of extra tubing to loop around inside the grow bed and cut of the rest. Fold the end of the tub over and seal the folded tube with tape.

Once you have this done, puncture tiny holes every 5 cm in the looped section of tubing in the grow bed. You may now fill your grow bed with your peat moss or pea gravel up until you cover the tube. This is the basic form of your aquaponics system.

Now you can focus on the aquarium: fill it with water and plug in the pump. You should see the water pumping into the grow bed and trickling down through the peat moss and back into the tank. Now is a good time to adjust the flow to make it run smoothly and gently.

Connect your air pump to your air stone using the other tubing, and place the stone in your tank. Attach a sponge filter for added filtration for your fish. Plug the pump in and you should see oxygenating bubbles rising through the water—your system is almost ready.

Check the pH level of your water. It is best somewhere between ph6.8–ph7.2, with ph7.0 being the ideal. If you have to adjust the pH level, now is a good time to do so. If your water is clear from chlorine and chloramine you can add your fish immediately—otherwise, let the water sit for 24 hours or treat it with a water conditioner before you begin.

Since your tank is not yet cycled, you will need to add your fish very slowly, gradually introducing additional fish to the tank while the bacterial colony in your grow bed grows to support them. You may need to perform daily water changes at first, in order to clean the water for your fish before the plants have a chance to do it for you.

If you take good care of your aquaponics system in this period, you should be ready to add plants within 4 weeks when the system is completely established. Introducing them slowly will make sure that you do not upset the careful balance between your fish population and plant population. Leave your actinic light on once you plant the seeds and wait for results to bloom.

Fish selection and care

For your first attempt at an aquaponics setup, avoid selecting fish that are too delicate to survive any water quality issues. Hardy species that can tolerate the varying water conditions that will be present in the beginning are highly recommended. platies, catfish, kribensis, danios, tiger barbs, dwarf gouramis or goldfish can all be used with success.

The notoriously messy nature of the goldfish is actually a benefit in this circumstance, since increased levels of fish waste mean more food for your plants. So long as you do not overwhelm the balance in nutrients between the plants and fish, you will enjoy success.

Plant selection and care

While you can grow just about any plant in an aquaponics system, you will find that fruit-bearing plants and spices may not grow to their full potential from this kind of setup—they will need a more robust, higher maintenance system. With the system described in this article, however, you can grow spinach, lettuce, basil, parsley and many other leafy green herbs.

If you decide to transplant your plants from soil, take very special care to thoroughly wash away all of the dirt surrounding the roots and to clear the plant’s entire surface of insects or other pests. Transplanting is an easy way to introduce an invasive species to your system without knowing it.

Maintaining your aquaponics system

A successful aquaponics system will give a bountiful crop

A successful aquaponics system will give a bountiful crop

The system described in this article has two major inputs: fish food and electricity. You will want to make sure you do not overfeed your fish—a single feeding should consist of enough food for your fish to consume in 5 minutes and no more. Your tank may also gradually lose water over time to absorption and evaporation, so you should perform a monthly 10–15% water change and refill that keeps it topped up.

Your plants’ mineral needs may need to be considered as well: Flowering plants and vegetables may benefit from having additional minerals added to the water at the start. Also as time goes on, the nutrient export must be replenished. If you notice that your plants are struggling, you may be able to find help in the form of liquid fertilisers designed for aquaponics systems. They contain soil components like phosphorous and potassium that your plants may be missing.

If your plants are growing nicely and your fish are active and healthy, then you’ve done it! Good job on creating your first mini aquaponics system. Cosmetic improvements can be made to the aquaponics system by boxing in the growbed to hide the tubing and wires. Now you can relax and enjoy the fruits of your labours: healthy fish and fresh home grown herb and spices. You can nibble on some lettuce while admiring your fish.

Adjustments to your aquarium aquaponics system

If there is too much fish waste in the system, instead of reducing the fish, add more sponge filtration. If the plants are not growing then try different plants. If the plants are growing long and stringy then they are not getting enough light. Increase the lighting. Keep checking the ph. If it keeps rising then add more peat. If it keeps falling then add some coral sand.

You should experiment with growing different plants. You can also try increasing and decreasing the pump flow rate, thereby increasing or decreasing the water around the plant roots.

If you get bored of your aquaponics system or it is not working out, you can always remove the plastic growbed and have just an ordinary aquarium. Or you can do more research to do it more professionally.

Catfish, loaches and other bottom feeders

Caring for catfish, loaches and other bottom-feeders

peppered corydoras catfish

peppered corydoras catfish

While bottom-feeding fish like catfish can be some of the most fascinating specimens in a tank, they often go underappreciated by the aquarium community in favour of more standard species. This is a shame because catfish and other bottom-feeding fish offer very real benefits for their owners.

Benefits of keeping catfish and bottom-feeders in a community tank

  • They exhibit unique and fascinating behaviour not seen in other types of fish
  • Bottom-feeders are great at cleaning up tank debris and detritus left over by other fish
  • Some species of catfish will eat algae, making it easier to control your tank’s algae problem
  • They make great tank mates with a wide variety of fish, and spend most of their time conveniently out of their neighbours’ business, minimising conflict
  • Catfish are generally very hardy and can adapt to wide variety of water conditions, even poor water conditions.

Choosing bottom-feeders for your tank

school of sterbai corydoras catfish

school of sterbai corydoras catfish

There are a huge number of different types of catfish and other bottom-feeding species that you can introduce to your tank. Different choices will work better depending on the size of the tank, the type of substrate you use, and the other fish you keep. Since some species of catfish can grow very large while other catfish are schooling fish, it is important to be sure you choose a species that will not overwhelm your aquarium.
 
By far the most popular bottom-feeding fish are plecostomus catfish, corydoras catfish and loaches. Both catfish are total scavengers who will eat just about anything including all the algae in your tank, keeping it pristinely clean without requiring any maintenance work. The main difference is that corydoras rarely grow more than a few inches long, while plecostomus can grow up to 2 feet (60 cm) long, quickly overwhelming the tank!
 
More about corydoras here

If you have a tank that can support a plecostomus catfish, however, you can consider all of your algae problems history, since its voracious appetite and constant feeding will keep your tank clean for as long as the fish lives. Another great benefit that plecostomus offers is a long life span: twenty to thirty years in some cases!

If you favour novelty in your tank, there are some species of catfish that offer this: the kryptopterus catfish, also known as the glass catfish, has transparent skin that actually allows you to see straight through it: bones, organs and all! This fish is not for everyone—they are very delicate and will generally only eat live food, but offer an immensely gratifying and eye-catching aquarium display.

Loaches are also very popular, and are highly desired thanks to their distinctive colouration and personalities. Loaches do their best in small groups where you can enjoy observing their complex social behaviour. They are active fish, and will constantly be turning over your sand or gravel substrate looking for debris to eat. They tend to be peaceful and do well in community tanks.
 
More about kuhli loaches here

Introducing bottom-dwelling fish to your tank

If you would like to add bottom-dwelling catfish or loaches to your tank, you should carefully consider their compatibility with your tank and your current fish. While catfish and loaches tend to be very peaceful fish, they can get aggressive if bullied, and large, carnivorous catfish may eat small fish up to half their size.

You will want to identify whether the catfish or loach you would like to introduce likes to be kept in a school or alone. Zebra plecostomus, for example, is a very popular and beautiful fish, but one that prefers to be the only bottom-feeder in a tank.

Being bottom-dwelling fish, your catfish and loaches will enjoy soft substrates that they can easily sift through—high quality sand or small, polished gravel works best. Keeping some flat-lying rocks for them to sit on can be a great aquascaping move, as well, especially if you keep a small school of bottom-dwellers.

Caring for catfish and loaches

While bottom-feeders will happily clean your tank of algae and eat just about any debris that may make its way to their habitat at the bottom of the tank. This may not be sufficient food for them. So these fish need to be fed, too. And, you should be careful to monitor their health and appetite closely because they are easily neglected by their owners.

Catfish of the corydoras family are often called armoured catfish because they feature hard exterior scales that function like a suit of armour. With these fish, starvation can often go unnoticed since the hard plates will not shrink noticeably, but the fish inside the scales will.

Another important element of care for catfish, loaches, and other bottom-feeding fish is their sensitivity to medication. Although most of these fish are very tolerant of poor water conditions, they are extremely sensitive to the side effects of medication. If you need to use medicine in your aquarium, it is best to move your catfish or loaches to a quarantine tank temporarily.

If you follow the above guidelines and take good care of your bottom-dwelling fish, you should have a beautifully clean, algae-free tank thanks to the nature’s bin men and cleaners of the aquatic world. So throw away your algae scrubber!

 

Load more